Paper $37.50 ISBN: 9780226674728 Will Publish June 2020
Cloth $112.50 ISBN: 9780226669670 Will Publish June 2020
E-book $37.50 Available for pre-order. ISBN: 9780226674865 Will Publish June 2020

When Maps Become the World

Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther

When Maps Become the World

Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther

336 pages | 10 color plates, 37 halftones | 6 x 9 | © 2020
Paper $37.50 ISBN: 9780226674728 Will Publish June 2020
Cloth $112.50 ISBN: 9780226669670 Will Publish June 2020
E-book $37.50 ISBN: 9780226674865 Will Publish June 2020
Map making and, ultimately, map thinking is ubiquitous across literature, cosmology, mathematics, psychology, and genetics. We partition, summarize, organize, and clarify our world via spatialized representations. Our maps and, more generally, our representations seduce and persuade; they build and destroy. They are the ultimate record of empires and of our evolving comprehension of our world.
This book is about the promises and perils of map thinking. Maps are purpose-driven abstractions, discarding detail to highlight only particular features of a territory. By preserving certain features at the expense of others, they can be used to reinforce a privileged position.

When Maps Become the World shows us how the scientific theories, models, and concepts we use to intervene in the world function as maps, and explores the consequences of this, both good and bad. We increasingly understand the world around us in terms of models, to the extent that we often take the models for reality. Winther explains how in time, our historical representations in science, in cartography, and in our stories about ourselves replace individual memories and become dominant social narratives—they become reality, and they can remake the world.

1.         Introduction: Why Maps?

A History and Philosophy of Map Thinking
The Nature of Map Thinking—Elements of Map Thinking—Deep Mapping—Five Hundred Years of Western Mapping

Maps Today
Cartography Meets GIS—A Definition Based on Representation—Characterizations Based on Process and Function

Three Maps
Waldseemüller’s Map—Guaman Poma’s Countermap—Van Sant’s Ultimate Map?


Part 1: Philosophy

2.         Theory Is to World as Map Is to Territory

Three Types of Analogy—Critical Cautions

The Map Analogy
A Typology of Map Analogies—Uses of the Map Analogy in Humanistic Inquiry

Assumption Archaeology


3.         From Abstraction to Ontologizing

The Abstraction-Ontologizing Account

Abstraction Stage I: Calibration of Units and Coordinates—Abstraction Stage II: Data Collection and Management—Abstraction Stage III: Generalization

Ontologizing 0: Representation Testing—Ontologizing I: Changing the World—Ontologizing II: Understanding the World—Ontologizing III: Classroom Communication


4.         Long Live Contextual Objectivity!

Pernicious Reification

Contextual Objectivity
Conformation—The Essential Indexical

A History of the Mercator Projection I: Gerardus Mercator
Mercator’s Critique of Earlier Projections—Mercator’s New Purpose: Navigation—Mercator’s Clear Presentation of Latitude and Longitude—Mercator’s Awareness of Alternative Projections

A History of the Mercator Projection II: Post Mercator

Integration Platforms
A Beyond-Mercator Integration Platform: Blocking Pernicious Reification and Seeking Contextual Objectivity—Philosophical Aspects of Integration Platforms


5.         Projecting Maps into Our Worlds

Two Canonical Philosophical Accounts of Representation: Isomorphism and Similarity
The Isomorphism Account—The Similarity Account

The Multiple Representations Account
Ontologizing—Merely-Seeing-As—Pluralistic Ontologizing—Climate Change and Multiple Representations


Part 2: Science

6.         Mapping Space

Extreme-Scale Maps in Cosmology
The Universe’s Baby Portrait—The Universe Growing Up (and Outward)—Cosmic-Scale Maps and the Abstraction-Ontologizing Account

Literal Cartographic Maps in Geology

State-Space Maps in Physics and Physical Chemistry

Analogous Maps in Mathematics


7.         Mapping Ourselves

Migration Maps
Arrowized Assumptions—Arrowized Maps—Countermapping Migration

Brain Maps
Decompositional Assumptions—Phrenological Maps—The Somatosensory and Motor Homunculi—Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)—Countermapping the Brain

Statistical Causal Maps
Linear Model Assumptions—Correlation and Causation—“Genetic” and “Environmental” Diseases—Path Diagrams as Statistical Causal Maps—When Causal Maps Become the World


8.         Mapping Genetics

Building a Mapping-Genetics Integration Platform
Assumptions—Terminology—Map Types

The Linear Genetic Map
Linear Genetic Maps of Phenotypic Linkage—Linear Genetic Maps of Nucleotides—Assumptions of the Linear Genetic Map

The Gene Expression Map

The Genotype-Phenotype Map

The Literal Cartographic Genetic Map

The Comparative Genetic Map

The Adaptive Landscape Map

An Analogous Genetic Map: The Tree of Life
Darwin’s Hypothesis—Contemporary Phylogenies

Future Extensions: Mapping Genetics as a Paradigmatic Integration Platform

9.         Map Thinking Science and Philosophy

Existence, World Making, and Responsibility

Map Thinking Scientific Methodology

Map Thinking Philosophical Methodology
Assumption Archaeology—Tracking Ethics and Power—Imagining “What If . . . ?”

An Invitation to Dream

Appendix: Cognitive Map Exercise
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