Paper $50.00 ISBN: 9780226544298 Published March 2018
Cloth $150.00 ISBN: 9780226544151 Published March 2018
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Land Bridges

Ancient Environments, Plant Migrations, and New World Connections

Alan Graham

Land Bridges

Alan Graham

288 pages | 88 halftones | 6 x 9 | © 2018
Paper $50.00 ISBN: 9780226544298 Published March 2018
Cloth $150.00 ISBN: 9780226544151 Published March 2018
E-book $10.00 to $50.00 About E-books ISBN: 9780226544328 Published March 2018
Land bridges are the causeways of biodiversity. When they form, organisms are introduced into a new patchwork of species and habitats, forever altering the ecosystems into which they flow; and when land bridges disappear or fracture, organisms are separated into reproductively isolated populations that can evolve independently. More than this, land bridges play a role in determining global climates through changes to moisture and heat transport and are also essential factors in the development of biogeographic patterns across geographically remote regions.

In this book, paleobotanist Alan Graham traces the formation and disruption of key New World land bridges and describes the biotic, climatic, and biogeographic ramifications of these land masses’ changing formations over time. Looking at five land bridges, he explores their present geographic setting and climate, modern vegetation, indigenous peoples (with special attention to their impact on past and present vegetation), and geologic history. From the great Panamanian isthmus to the boreal connections across the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans that allowed exchange of organisms between North America, Europe, and Asia, Graham’s sweeping, one-hundred-million-year history offers new insight into the forces that shaped the life and land of the New World.
Contents
Abbreviations, Time Scale, and Conversions
Preface
Protocols and Organization
References
Introduction
References
Additional References

Part I: Boreal Land Bridges

Bering Land Bridge
Beringia
Background
References
Additional References
One / West Beringia: Siberia and Kamchatka
Siberia
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
Kamchatka
Geographic Setting and Climate
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
References
Additional References
Two / East Beringia: Alaska, Northwestern North America, and the Aleutian Connection
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
Utilization of the Bering Land Bridge
Peopling of America (from the West)
References
Additional References
Three / North Atlantic Land Bridge: Northeastern North America, Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Islands, Northwestern Europe
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Modern Vegetation
Utilization of the North Atlantic Land Bridge
Modernization of the Flora
Biodiversity and Vegetation Density
Floristic Relationships between Eastern Asia and Eastern North America
Geofloras and the Madrean-Tethyan Hypothesis
Indigenous People
Peopling of America (from the East)
References
Additional References

Part II: Equatorial Land Bridges

Four / Antillean Land Bridge
Stepping Stones or Lost Highway
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
Utilization of the Antillean Land Bridge
References
Additional References
Five / Central American Land Bridge
South and North of the CALB
Geographic Setting and Climate
Forging the Final Link: Geology
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
Utilization of the CALB
References
Additional References

Part III: Austral Land Bridge

Six / Magellan Land Bridge: Cono del Sur and Antarctica
Cono del Sur
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Modern Vegetation
Indigenous People
Peopling of South America (from the North)
Antarctica
Geographic Setting and Climate
Geology
Land Bridges and Island Biogeography
Utilization of the Magellan Land Bridge
Cono del Sur
Antarctica
References
Additional References
Seven / Case Studies
Ferns and Allied Groups
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Monocotyledons
Dicotyledons
References
Additional References
Eight / Summary and Conclusions
Events, Processes, and Responses
Bering Land Bridge
North Atlantic Land Bridge
Antillean Land Bridge
Central American Land Bridge
Magellan Land Bridge
Conceptual Issues and Future Needs
References
Additional References (Conservation)
Additional References (Selected Classical Literature)
Acknowledgments
Index
 
Review Quotes
Paul Manos, Duke University
“Graham is among the best paleobotanists in the world. In multiple works, he has synthesized vast amounts of information to produce a paleo perspective on plant diversity through the last hundred million years. Within those works, he has touched on the role of land bridges, but not with the attention shown here. The topic is clear and timely, and this highly original work has great potential to contribute to the biogeographical history of the Americas.”
Henry Hooghiemstra, University of Amsterdam
Land Bridges attempts to reconstruct the broad outlines of the geological and paleobotanical history of the last hundred million years. The history of plate tectonics—how it influenced past plant migration, current composition of regional floras, and intercontinental linkages—makes this book a great pleasure to read. While reading, admiration gradually increases for how Graham is able to make a fascinating story out of such a large bulk of evidence. Few scientists have developed such an impressive, integrated picture of earth history. Spectacular.”
For more information, or to order this book, please visit https://www.press.uchicago.edu
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