The History of Cartography, Volume 2, Book 1

Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies

Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward

The History of Cartography, Volume 2, Book 1
Volumes One, Two, Three, and Six are also available in PDF online.

Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward

604 pages | 40 page color insert, 40 color plates, 355 halftones, 8 tables. | 8-1/2 x 11 | © 1992
Cloth $301.00 ISBN: 9780226316352 Published August 1992
The first book of volume 2 of the monumental History of Cartography focuses on mapping in non-Western cultures, an area of study traditionally overlooked by Western scholars. Extensive original research makes this the foremost source for defining, describing, and analyzing this vast and unexplored theater of cartographic history. Book 1 offers a critical synthesis of maps, mapmaking, and mapmakers in the Islamic world and South Asia.

"[The six-volume set] is certain to be the standard reference for all subsequent scholarship. The editors . . . have assembled and analyzed a vast collection of knowledge. . . . If the first volume is an indication, the complete set will be comprehensive and judicious." —John Noble Wilford, New York Times Book Review

"As well as enlarging the mind and lifting the spirits through the sheer magnitude of its endeavor, the collection delights the senses. The illustrations are exquisite: browsing fingers will instinctively alight on the sheaf of maps reproduced on stock slightly thicker than that of the text. The maps are so beguiling in the tantalizing glimpses they offer of other, seemingly incomprehensible, worlds, that the sight of them will stir the connoisseur in even the most-guarded scholar." —Ronald Rees, Geographical Review

"The corpus it brings to light, along with the extensive references, bibliography, and exhaustive appendices containing valuable comments about many of the pieces discussed, together make this book an important resource for the scholar."—Robert Provin, Professional Geographer

"This volume is a landmark of new research and will certainly contribute to further discoveries, translations, interpretations, inventories, more precise dating and the construction of stemmata." —Christian Jacob, Cartographica

"In seeking to characterize the cartography of premodern Islamic and south Asian societies, the editors offer the image of an archipelago of cartographically conscious islands in a silent sea. The research potential which they have revealed is clearly vast and underappreciated, with many islands still to be discovered or enlarged. This important book, does more, therefore, than plug a huge gap in cartographic historiography. It provides the foundation for crosscultural cartographic research in two major world regions."-Jeffrey Stone, Ecumene
List of Illustrations
Preface, J. B. Harley and David Woodward

Part One - Islamic Cartography

1. Introduction to Islamic Maps, Ahmet T. Karamustafa
Greek Heritage
Map and Text
Conditions of Map Production
Theory and Practice

2. Celestial Mapping, Emilie Savage-Smith
Early Syrian Origins
Planispheric Astrolabes as Celestial Maps
Early History of the Astrolabe
Extended Use of Astrolabic Mapping
Al-Biruni on Celestial Mapping
Additional Planar Mapping
Three-Dimensional Celestial Mapping
Spherical Astrolabes
Celestial Globes
The Manufacture of Celestial Globes
Armillary Spheres
Mapping of Individual Constellations and Asterisms
The Pre-Islamic Astronomic System
Lunar Mansions
Islamic Constellation Iconography
Islamic Asterism Mapping and Its Influence in Europe
Personifying and Allegorical Interpretations of Celestial Bodies
The Introduction of Early Modern European Celestial Mapping

3. Cosmographical Diagrams, Ahmet T. Karamustafa
Cosmology in Islam
General Characteristics of Cosmological Maps and Diagrams
Exoteric Realism: Philosophical and Scientific Diagrams
Celestial Diagrams
Geographical Diagrams
Esoteric Speculation: Gnostic and Mystical Diagrams
Gnostic Diagrams
Mystical Diagrams
Religious Cosmography

Early Geographical Mapping

The Beginnings of a Cartographic Tradition, Gerald R. Tibbetts
Early Geographical Literature
Foreign Geographical Influence
The Map of the Caliph al-Ma’mun
Geographical Tables
Longitude and Latitude Tables: Al-Khwarazmi, al Battani, and Ptolemy
Al-Khwarazmi’s Methods and Purpose
The Length of the Mediterranean
The Seven Climates and Their Boundaries
Prime Meridians
Suhrab’s Construction of a Map
The Maps from the al-Khwarazmi Manuscript

5. The Balkhi School of Geographers, Gerald R. Tibbetts
Works of the Balkhi School
The Maps of the Balkhi School
Description of the Maps
Selection of Material
The Treatment of the Persian Provinces
The Arabic-Speaking Provinces
The World Map
Al-Muqaddasi’s Maps
Miscellaneous Manuscripts Belonging to the Balkhi School

6. Later Cartographic Developments, Gerald R. Tibbetts
Later Recensions of Ibn Hawqal’s Maps
The Hudud al’alam
Later Tables and al-Biruni
Later Geographical Writers
Thirteenth-Century and Later World Maps
Climatic Maps and Their Variants
First Use of a Graticule
Other Maps

7. Cartography of al-Sharif al-Idrisi, S. Maqbul Ahmad
Al-Sharif al-Idrisi as a Mapmaker
The Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi’khtiraq al-afaq
Publications and Translations
Al-Idrisi’s Instructions for Making a World Map
Writing the Nuzhat al-mushtaq
Maps in the Nuzhat al-mushtaq
The Rawd al-faraj wa-nuzhat al-muhaj
The Sources for al-Idrisi’s Nuzhat al-mushtaq
The Influence of al-Idrisi’s Work on Later Authors

8. Geodesy, Raymond P. Mercier
Arabic Metrology
Measurements of the Length of a Degree
Al-Biruni’s Measurement of the Radius of the Earth
Determining the Longitude of Ghazna

9. Qibla Charts, Qubla Maps, and Related Instruments, David A. King and Richard P. Lorch
Qibla Charts Centered on the Ka’ba
Qibla Maps Based on Coordinates
Methods of Qibla Determination with Spheres and Astrolabes

Premodern Ottoman Geographical Mapping

10. Introduction to Ottoman Cartography, Ahmet T. Karamustafa
Scope and Organization
Problems in the Study of Ottoman Cartography

11. Military, Administrative, and Scholarly Maps and Plans, Ahmet T. Karamustafa
Cartography in the Service of the State
Military Maps
Architectural Plans and Waterway Maps
Cartography as Private Enterprise
World Maps
Regional Maps

12. Itineraries and Town Views in Ottoman Histories, J. M. Rogers
The Compilation of Illustrated Histories
Early Examples of Topographical Illustration in Ottoman Texts
Topographical Illustration in the Mecmu’a-i menazil
Topographical Illustration in Later Ottoman Histories

Marine Charting

13. The Role of Charts in Islamic Navigation in the Indian Ocean, Gerald R. Tibbetts

14. Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean, Svat Soucek
Arab Portolan Charts
Piri Re’is
Charts of the New World
Kitab-i bahriye
Ottoman Portolan Charts and Atlases
The al-Sharafi al-Sifaqsi Family

Part Two - South Asian Cartography

15. Introduction to South Asian Cartography, Joseph E. Schwartzberg
The State of Our Knowledge
Published Writings
Repositories for Indian Cartography
The Nature of the Indian Corpus as Revealed by Textual Sources and the Archaeological Record
Types of Materials Produced
Prehistoric and Tribal Maps
Achievements of the Harappan Culture
Vedic Altars
Ancient Knowledge of Geography
Evidence of Ancient Cosmographies
Indian Astronomy
Surveying in the Mauryan Empire
Architectural Plans from Ancient and Medieval India
Maps Noted in Secular Texts
Fruits of Hindu-Muslim Interaction
European Accounts of Indian Mapping
Reasons for the Relative Paucity of South Asian Maps

16. Cosmographical Mapping, Joseph E. Schwartzberg
Underlying Cosmological Conceptions
Cosmographies in the Hindu Tradition
Paintings and Ink Drawings Not Primarily Astronomical in Content
Cosmographic Globes
Celestial Mapping
Cosmographies: The Jain Tradition
Indo-Islamic Cosmography
Microcosmic Analogues of the Cosmos
Cosmography and Mental Maps

17. Geographical Mapping, Joseph E. Schwartzberg
World Maps
Topographic Maps
Mughal Maps
Late Premodern Maps from Various Regions
Rajasthan and Gujarat
Central India
Maharashtra and Other Areas of Maratha Activity
Sri Lanka
Northeastern India
Hybrid Maps and the Gentil Atlas
Late Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Nepali Maps
Route Maps
Large-Scale Maps, Plans, and Maplike Oblique Views of Small Localities
Maps of Small, Primarily Rural Localities
Secular Plans of Cities and Towns
Oblique Secular Representations of Cities and Towns
Maps of Sacred Places
Maps of Forts
Architectural Drawings

18. Nautical Maps, Joseph E. Schwartzberg

19. Conclusion, Joseph E. Schwartzberg

20. Concluding Remarks, J. B. Harley and David Woodward
Comparative Cartographies
Cartography and Society
Future Agendas

Editors, Authors, and Project Staff
Bibliographical Index
General Index
, Ellen D. Goldlust, Scholars Editorial Services
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