The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel
Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe
Distributed for Reaktion Books
Merback compares the images of Christ's Crucifixion with those of the two thieves who met their fate beside Jesus. In paintings by well-known Northern European masters and provincial painters alike, Merback finds the two thieves subjected to incredible cruelty, cruelty that artists could not depict in their scenes of Christ's Crucifixion because of theological requirements. Through these representations Merback explores the ways audiences in early modern Europe understood images of physical suffering and execution. The frequently shocking works also provide a perspective from which Merback examines the live spectacle of public torture and execution and how audiences were encouraged by the Church and the State to react to the experience. Throughout, Merback traces the intricate and extraordinary connections among religious art, devotional practice, bodily pain, punishment, and judicial spectatorship.
Keenly aware of the difficulties involved in discussing images of atrocious violence but determined to make them historically comprehensible, Merback has written an informed and provocative study that reveals the rituals of medieval criminal justice and the visual experiences they engendered.
1. 'A Shameful Place': The Rise of Calvary
2. The Two Thieves Crucified: Bodies, Weapons and the Technologies of Pain
3. The Broken Body as Spectacle
4. Pain and Spectacle: Rituals of Punishment in Late Medieval Europe
5. The Wheel: Symbol, Image, Screen
6. The Cross and the Wheel
7. Dysmas and Gestas: Model and Anti-model
8. Image and Spectacle in the Era of Art