Spain, China and Japan in Manila, 1571-1644

Local Comparisons and Global Connections

Birgit Tremml-Werner

Spain, China and Japan in Manila, 1571-1644

Birgit Tremml-Werner

Distributed for Amsterdam University Press

411 pages | 7 halftones | 6 x 9 | © 2015
Cloth $155.00 ISBN: 9789089648334 Published August 2015 For sale only in the United States, its dependencies, the Philippines, and Canada
Spain, China and Japan in Manila, 1571–1644 offers a new perspective on the connected histories of Spain, China, and Japan as they emerged and developed following Manila’s foundation as the capital of the Spanish Philippines in 1571. Examining a wealth of multilingual primary sources, Birgit Tremml-Werner shows that cross-cultural encounters not only shaped Manila’s development as a “Eurasian” port city, but also had profound political, economic, and social ramifications for the three pre-modern states. Combining a systematic comparison with a focus on specific actors during this period, this book addresses many long-held misconceptions and offers a more balanced and multi-faceted view of these nations’ histories.
Contents
Acknowledgements
 
Part I - The Setting
 
Introduction
     The Empirical Setting
     Noteworthy Scholarship
          Multilingual Primary Sources
     Comparisons and Connections
          A note on names and places
 
1. The Comparative Framework
Comparing Political Economies
The Spanish Overseas Empire
     Overseas Colonies and the Spanish Political Economy
     Repositioning in an Emerging Global World: European
     Conflicts in an Overseas Context
Ming China
     Ming China’s Political Economy 
     Repositioning in an Emerging Global World
Azuchi-Momoyama/Tokugawa Japan
     Pollitical Economy – Tokugawa seiken
     Repositioning between two Worlds
Encountering the Other
Concluding Remarks
 
Part II - Cross-cultural Encounters in the Philippines
 
2. The Foundations of a Global Stage
The Early Modern Philippines
     The Islands in Pre-colonial Times
     The Arrival of the Spaniards
The Castilian Territorial Model
     Land Seizure and Regional Administration
     Colonial Of f ices
     Secular and Ecclesiastical Administration
Crown Monopolies: Overseas Spain’s Political Economy
     The Pillars of the First European Capital in the East
Vicious Demographic Circles
Towards Manila’s Global Integration
 
3. The Trilogy of Triangular Trade
Junk Trade, Trans-Pacif ic Trade, and Provision Trade
The Manila System
How It All Began
South China Sea Trade in the Sixteenth Century
     A Vast ‘Chinese’ Network
     Integrating Manila
Integrating the Manila Galleon into South East Asian Trading Networks
     Indigenous Participation and the Origins of Sino-Japanese Trade in Luzon
     Fujianese Trade with Manila
     Irregular Beginnings and Institutionalising Attempts of Hispano-Japanese Exchange
     Commercial Gifts: Peculiarities of Hispano-Japanese Trade
The Spirits That They Called – Bargaining on the Spot
Provisions Trade
Connections between Manila and Macao
Concluding Remarks
 
Part III - Zooming Out: Local, Central, and Global Connections
 
4. Triangular Foreign Relations
Intercultural Diplomacy in the South China Sea
Diplomatic Shifts between Japan and Ming China
Foreign Relations between China and Overseas Spain
Diplomatic Relations between Japan and the Overseas Empire
     Irregular Beginnings
     Diplomatic Relations between Tokugawa Japan and the
     Spanish Overseas Empire
 
5. Local and Central Dualism
Manila Trade-related Central and Local Dualism
     Hispanic Actors and Trans-Pacif ic Silk Bartering
     Japanese Silk Imports and Macro-regional Consequences
     Private versus Shuinsen Trade with Luzon
     Competition between Beijing and Fujian
     Maritime Insecurity and Shifts in the Manila System
 
6. Local-Central Tensions
Geopolitical Strategies, Intelligence, and Information Gathering
Geopolitical Shifts
     China: Taiwan and the Zheng
     Japanese Advances in New Spain
     Japan and the Philippines: Alienation and Its Consequences
Early Modern ‘Capacity Building’: Transfer via Manila
     Ming China and Information Gathering
     Technological Transfer: Case Studies from Japan
Concluding Remarks: Local-Central Dualism in Foreign Relations
 
Part IV - Zooming In: Early Modern Manila and Regional Globalisation
 
7. Manila as Port City
New Communication Patterns and Early Modern Globalisation
East Asian Human Agency
     Intramuros
     Parian
     Japanese Towns
A Flexible Labour Market?
 
8. Actors and Agency
Ever yday Life Constraints: Head Taxes, Revenues, Residence Permits
Juridical Issues and Multicultural Conf licts
Overseas Chinese (Huaqiao) in Manila
The Japanese in Manila
Cultural and Social Issues
Maritime Manila’s and Post-1624 Developments
Concluding Remarks
Conclusion
 
References
     Primary Sources
          Unprinted Sources
          Printed Sources
     Secondary Sources
 
Index
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