The Roman Crucible
The Artistic Patronage of the Papacy 1198 - 1304
Distributed for Hirmer Publishers
In addition to tracing the history of commissions approved by the church’s governing body, the Curia, Gardner’s research scrutinizes the complex relationships between artists and popes, cardinals, and other members of the church, with detailed accounts of individual’s stylistic and iconographic peculiarities. Gardner demonstrates how, through these interactions, Rome and the neighboring papal summer residences of Anagni, Orvieto, and Viterbo emerged as some of the most innovative artistic centers in Europe and melting pots for various artistic styles and techniques.