Producing Against Poverty

Female and male micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru

Annelou Ypeij

Producing Against Poverty
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Annelou Ypeij

Distributed for Amsterdam University Press

163 pages | © 2000
Paper $41.50 ISBN: 9789053563779 Published June 2000 For sale only in the United States, its dependencies, the Philippines, and Canada
Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison between the position of men and women throughout its argumentation. The author also analyses the conditions of labourers working for micro-producers. By paying extensive attention to the subcontracting links between micro-production and the large scale production process, she carefully builds up to general conclusions which go way beyond the micro level of analysis. Micro-production reproduces poverty by subordinating important participants of the production such as women and labourers. The ultimate conclusion is that the informal sector grows not only in times of economic recession, but also in times of economic growth.

Chapter 1:  Theories of the informal sector
1.1  Introduction
1.2  The neo-liberal approach to urban poverty
1.3  The neo-marxist approach to urban poverty
1.4  De Soto on informality
1.5  Other approaches to informality in Lima
1.6  Social embeddeness of economic activities
1.7  Actor's choices and decisions
1.8  The objects and methods of this study
Chapter 2: Surviving in Lima
2.1  Introduction
2.2  Lima, a city of lost grandeur
2.3  Urban integration and the growing distrust of the State
2.4  The Fujishock
2.5  Grassroots organizations
2.6  Small-scale economic sector
2.7  Shining Path
2.8  Fieldwork in a violent context
Chapter 3:  Households
3.1  Introduction
3.2  Composition and life-cycle of the household
3.3  Gender and power in everyday practice
3.4  Sexual division of labor
3.5  Income and budgeting
3.6  Non-separated cash flows
3.7  Location of the activities
3.8  Women: equal producers of family laborers?
3.9  Conclusions
Chapter 4:  Neighborhood networks
4.1  Introduction
4.2  Social networks in poor neighborhoods
4.3  Productive activities and social networks
4.4  Producers' networks
4.5  Subcontracting networks
4.6 Trust and Repetition
4.7 Micro-producers, reputation and reciprocity
4.8 Conclusions
Chapter 5:  Women, men and capital accumulation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Female producers in the household
5.3 Femal producers and neighborhood networks
5.4 Female producers and markets
5.5 Process of capital accumulation
5.6 Female producers in serach of solutions
5.7 Conclusions
Chapter 6:  Large-scale production processes
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Forms of subcontracting
6.3 Reasons for subcontracting
6.4 Gender and subcontracting
6.5 Micro-company, large company, one production process
6.6 Subordination and capital accumulation
6.7 Conclusions
Chapter 7:  The labor process
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Labor conditions in general
7.3 Wage laborers and the transition to producing on one's own account
7.4 Wage laborers in distinct organizations of production
7.5 Female wage laborers and the independent production organization
7.6 Conclusions
Chapter 8:  Producing against Poverty: Conclusions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The gendered process of capital accumulation
8.3 A chain of subordination
8.4 The internal dynmaics of the Liman small-scale sector
8.5 Diverse ways of producing against poverty
Appendix:  Summary of case
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