Plural Policing

The Mixed Economy of Visible Patrols in England and Wales

Adam Crawford, Stuart Lister, Sarah Blackburn, and Jonathan Burnett

Plural Policing
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Adam Crawford, Stuart Lister, Sarah Blackburn, and Jonathan Burnett

Distributed for Policy Press at the University of Bristol

128 pages | 6 3/4 x 9 1/2 | © 2005
Paper $25.00 ISBN: 9781861346711 Published March 2005 For sale in North and South America only
This timely and important report draws together the findings of an extensive two-year study of developments in the provision of visible policing in England and Wales. Exploring the dynamic relations between different public and private providers, it combines an overview of national developments with a detailed analysis of six focused case studies, including two city centres, one out-of-town shopping centre, an industrial park and two residential areas. The report considers the role of community support officers, neighbourhood wardens and private security guards, amongst other plural policing personnel and outlines the policy implications of the research findings, particularly with regard to the Government's current police reform agenda. It also provides important insights and recommendations regarding the organisation, co-ordination and regulation of the future mixed economy of visible security patrols.Plural policing will be of special interest to academics, researchers, policy makers, police and security managers and students of criminology and policing, as well as all those interested in community safety and the changing face of modern policing.
List of tables and figures

1. Introduction
A reassurance paradox
    Plural policing
    The research study
2. A mixed economy of plural policing
National policy developments
    Police workforce strength
    Commercial developments
    Survey of manned private security firms
    A competitive marketplace in the mixed economy
    Selling police patrol services
3. Strategies and styles of policing
Core tasks
    Activities in residential areas
    Developing community cohesion
    Community intelligence
    Local knowledge and capacity
    Legal Powers
    Impact of public-private partnerships on private security
    Impact of public-private partnerships on the police
    The growing role of exclusion
    Security dilemmas
4. Public reassurance
Providing reassurance
    Community support officers and reassurance
    Wardens and reassurance
    Private security and reassurance
    Public reception and identity
5. The challenge of coordination
Organising the division of labour and coordination
    Strategic coordination and partnership
    Operational coordination
    Modes of local policing teams
    Information exchange
    The provision of additional security as a 'club good'
6. Questions of governance and accountability
Challenges to governance and accountability
    Meeting regulatory challenges
    Local accountability
    Potential implications or reassurance policing through public-private partnerships
    The future of visible policing
7. Conclusions and recommendations

Appendix A: The case study sites
Appendix B: The Advisory Board membership
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