Cloth $50.00 ISBN: 9781908323583 Published September 2014 For sale in North America only
E-book $50.00 ISBN: 9781908323590 Published August 2014

The History of Bhutan

Karma Phuntsho

Karma Phuntsho

Distributed for Haus Publishing

661 pages | 35 color plates, 1 map | 6 1/5 x 9 1/2 | © 2013
Cloth $50.00 ISBN: 9781908323583 Published September 2014 For sale in North America only
E-book $50.00 ISBN: 9781908323590 Published August 2014
In 2008, Bhutan triumphantly took the stage as the world’s youngest democracy. But despite its growing prominence—and rising scholarly interest in the country—Bhutan remains one of the least studied, and least well-known places on the planet.

Karma Phuntsho’s The History of Bhutan is the first book to offer a comprehensive history of Bhutan in English. Along with a detailed social and political analysis, it offers substantive discussions of Bhutan’s geography and culture; the result is the clearest, richest account of this nation and its history ever published for general readers.
Contents

Preface

THE COUNTRY AND ITS NAMES

MonLhomonkhazhi—the Mon of four approaches

Menjong—the medicinal country

Country bestrewn with Tsanden

Drukyul—the Land of the Thunder Dragon

Bhutan—a British legacy

THE LAND AND ITS PEOPLE

The Subtropical Lowlands

The Temperate Midlands

The Alpine Highlands

The People

MANY TONGUES

Central Bodish group

Dzongkha

Chocha Ngacha/Tsamangpikha

Jyokha of Merak and Sakteng

Jyokha of Dur

Lakha language

Bökay or Tibetan

East Bodish group

Bumthangkha

Khengkha

Kurtöp

Ngenkha

Chalibikha

Dzalakha

Dakpakha

Monkha/Olekha

Other Bodic languages

Tshangla

Lhopikha

Gongdukpikha

Lepcha

Limbu, Rai, Tamang, Sherpa, etc.

Kurux

Indo-European languages

Nepali

Hindi

English

HISTORY AND PREHISTORY

In the presence of the past

The Prehistoric Period

EARLY HISTORIC PERIOD: EARLY DIFFUSION OF BUDDHISM

Songtsen Gampo and the two temples

Padmasambhava and the two kings

The refugees

EARLY HISTORIC PERIOD: LATER DIFFUSION OF BUDDHISM

The dung lineages

The Ura dung

The Ngang dung

Dung/dung reng

The religious lines

Bön religion

The Lhapa Kagyu school

The Drukpa Kagyu school

The Nyingma school

Tertöns in rough chronological order

Pema Lingpa and other local Bhutanese tertöns

Lhomon Kathogpa

Chagzampa tradition

Nenyingpa

Barawa of Kagyu school

Sakyapa

Shingtapa of Gelug school

Kamtshang of Kagyu school

Drigung of Kagyu school

Other prominent religious visitors

Indian visitors

A sketch of society and polity

THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD: THE UNIFICATION OF THE DRAGON COUNTRY

The historical conditions

Zhabdrung’s dispute in Tibet

Zhabdrung arrives in Bhutan

The Portuguese guests

Zhabdrung’s first dzong and the second Tibetan invasion

The Palace of Great Bliss and the third Tibetan invasion

The Dalai Lama’s rule and Zhabdrung’s victory

Gaden Phodrang’s second defeat and Zhabdrung’s celebrations

Zhabdrung’s retreat and expansion of the state

ZHABDRUNG’S LEGACYAND THE EARLY MONK RULERS

Zhabdrung’s legacy of a religious state

Sustaining Zhabdrung’s legacy

The pressing question of succession

The beginning of internal strife

The alternate line of succession

Overture to Ladakh and disclosure of the ‘open secret’

MULTIPLE INCARNATIONS AND THE RISE OF LAY RULERS

The Shaman of Wang and the rise of the first lay ruler

The proliferation of incarnations and the fall of Bearded Desi

Two incarnate brothers and the last Tibetan invasion

Mipham Wangpo’s escape and the continuation of Bönbji rule

The glorious days of Sherab Wangchuk

THE RISE OF SOUTHWARD RELATIONS AND INTERNAL STRIFE

Zhidar and Bhutan’s affairs with Cooch Behar

The opportunistic EIC

Bogle and the first British Mission to Bhutan

The reign of Jigme Sengay and more white men

Factional fighting and the imbroglio of incarnations

The clash of incarnations and the first pressure from the east

Bhutan’s stake in British expansion

Death, destruction and reappearance

CIVIL WARS AND FRONTIER TROUBLES

First clash with the British in the east

The fear of the unknown and the Pemberton mission

Chakpa Sangay’s rebellion and an unaccomplished mission

Two capitals, two rulers and oaths of reconciliation

The loss of the luminaries and re-ignition of strife

The fate of Jigme Norbu and the fall of Chakpa Sangay

The incessant conflicts

The rise of Jigme Namgyal

THE DUAR WAR AND THE BLACK REGENT

Continued frontier outrages

The humiliation of Ashley Eden

The Duar War

Resumption of civil war

THE EMERGENCE OF UGYEN WANGCHUK AND END OF CIVIL WAR

The Rise of Ugyen Wangchuk

Bhutan’s last internal strife and the battle of Changlingmethang

Ugyen Wangchuk as king-maker and mediator

The final years of a religious republic

EARLY MODERN PERIOD: THE INTRODUCTION OF MONARCHY

The sociopolitical setting

The King is crowned

King Ugyen Wangchuk’s deeds and devotion

The reign of Jigme Wangchuk

The weight of the golden yoke

Securing the sovereignty

THE MODERN PERIOD: THE DRAGON’S NEW JOURNEY

Decentralization, democracy and dasho aspirants

Security, sovereignty and the dragon’s wrath

Socioeconomic development and cultural transformations

The dragon’s tryst with happiness

Bibliography

Notes

Acknowledgements

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