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The Upper Río Orthon Basin of Pando, Bolivia, is a transition zone between moister lowland Amazonian forests and dryer deciduous forests. This largely unexplored region potentially harbors one of the most richly biodiverse aquatic systems within Bolivia, if not within the Amazon River basin. A multinational and multidisciplinary team of scientists surveyed the area to provide a baseline assessment of its biological and conservation value as well as the current and future threats facing the region. In just over two intensive weeks, scientists surveyed water quality, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, crustaceans, fishes, and genetics.