American Tourists in France from Jefferson to the Jazz Age
Levenstein begins in 1786, when Thomas Jefferson instructed young upper-class American men to travel overseas for self-improvement rather than debauchery. Inspired by these sentiments, many men crossed the Atlantic to develop "taste" and refinement. However, the introduction of the transatlantic steamship in the mid-nineteenth century opened France to people further down the class ladder. As the upper class distanced themselves from the lower-class travelers, tourism in search of culture gave way to the tourism of "conspicuous leisure," sex, and sensuality. Cultural tourism became identified with social-climbing upper-middle-class women. In the 1920s, prohibition in America and a new middle class intent on "having fun" helped make drunken sprees in Paris more enticing than trudging through the Louvre. Bitter outbursts of French anti-Americanism failed to jolt the American ideal of a sensual, happy-go-lucky France, full of joie de vivre. It remained Americans' favorite overseas destination.
From Fragonard to foie gras, the delicious details of this story of how American visitors to France responded to changing notions of leisure and blazed the trail for modern mass tourism makes for delightful, thought-provoking reading.
"...a thoroughly readable and highly likable book."—Deirdre Blair, New York Times Book Review
Pt. 1: In Search of Taste and Distinction, 1786-1848
1: Jefferson versus Adams
2: Getting There Was Not Half the Fun
3: A Man's World
4: Eat, Drink, but Be Wary
5: "The Athens of Modern Europe"
6: Pleasures of the Flesh
Pt. 2: Paris and Tourism Transformed, 1848-1870
7: Paris Transformed
8: Keeping Away from the Joneses
9: The Feminization of American Tourism
Pt. 3: Class, Gender, and the Rise of Leisure Tourism, 1870-1914
10: "The Golden Age of Travel"
11: Prisoners of Leisure: Upper-Class Tourism
12: How "The Other Half" Toured
13: Class, Gender, and the Rise of Antitourism
14: Machismo, Morality, and Millionaires
Pt. 4: The Invasion of the Lower Orders, 1917-1930
15: Doughboys and Dollars
16: "How're You Gonna Keep 'Em Down on the Farm?"
17: A Farewell to "Culture Vultures"
18: Unhappy Hosts, Unwelcome Visitors
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