# The New Math

## A Political History

Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction: The American Subject

Chapter 2. The Subject and the State: The Origins of the New Math

Chapter 3. The Textbook Subject: Mathematicians and the New Math

Chapter 4. The Subject in Itself: Arithmetic as Knowledge

Chapter 5. The Subject in the Classroom: The Selling of the New Math

Chapter 6. The Basic Subject: New Math and Its Discontents

Chapter 2. The Subject and the State: The Origins of the New Math

Chapter 3. The Textbook Subject: Mathematicians and the New Math

Chapter 4. The Subject in Itself: Arithmetic as Knowledge

Chapter 5. The Subject in the Classroom: The Selling of the New Math

Chapter 6. The Basic Subject: New Math and Its Discontents

Epilogue

Acknowledgments

Notes

Bibliography

Index

Review Quotes

**Alex Bellos | Nature**

“Phillips reminds us in his fascinating book that even though mathematics is supposed to be apolitical, the teaching of it is anything but.”

**Jeremy Kilpatick, University of Georgia | Science**

“

*The New Math*sheds light on a time when changing political commitments were affecting what it meant to be prepared—mathematically—for citizenship in a modern, technology-laden society. . . . The book is based on extensive research and is incredibly well documented. . . . Likely to stand for a long time as the most thorough, authoritative account of this mid-twentieth-century phenomenon.”**Carla Nappi | New Books in Science, Technology, and Society**

“Importantly,

*The New Math*explores not just the production of these textbooks but also what happened when they were actually brought into American classrooms and engaged by teachers, students, and parents. As a result, in addition to being a fascinating political history it’s also a model of how we can treat the archaeology of the classroom as a way to approach the history of science.”**N. W. Schillow, emeritus, Lehigh Carbon Community College | Choice**

“Reacting to the Soviet launch of Sputnik in 1957 as a wake-up call, the United States provided extensive funding for the development of the ‘new math.’ Unfortunately, the impetus to better prepare the nation’s students for a more technical future gave way to a twenty-year path littered with educators’ resistance, parental confusion, public ridicule, and declining test scores. Phillips carefully presents this journey, starting with the politically driven funding to develop secondary mathematics programs that would emphasize conceptual understanding over computation. The well-documented book provides insight regarding the initial overhaul of the curriculum, primarily focusing on the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG). Changes to the elementary-level programs were not originally part of the National Science Foundation funding, and Phillips describes how this evolved as well. He further explains how this national curriculum effort created challenges—adequate teacher training, costly textbook adoption, and consistency of delivery despite the best of intentions with which the movement was founded. The epilogue comments briefly on the post-new-math years, including the introduction of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. Overall, the presentation is well reasoned, compelling, and informative. . . . Highly recommended.”

**Jeremy Mikula | Chicago Tribune, Printers Row**

“Noted. . . . Phillips examines how new forms of teaching and mathematics in the 1950s and ’60s [were] a reaction to Cold War tensions.”

**Aubrey Clayton | Pacific Standard**

“If you’re an American between the ages of 45 and 70, your teachers likely subjected you to the ‘new math,’ a classroom fad that deemphasized memorization and calculation (e.g., times tables) in favor of abstract logic (number systems, proving theorems). Phillips’s history traces the new math craze from its roots as a post-Sputnik push to shore up American kids’ science and math skills—and, by training them to reason ‘rigorously,’ to inoculate them against Communism. . . . Phillips’s book argues that children’s math education will continue to be the fulcrum of great political shifts. These debates will of course be exploited energetically by parents and politicians—who in most cases have forgotten whatever math they once knew.”

**Theodore M. Porter, University of California, Los Angeles | author of "Karl Pearson: The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age"**

“Phillips’s exposition of what the new math meant and how, in practice, it was taught are definite strengths of his book. He reveals unexpected dimensions of the controversy it generated. Its champions in the classroom put more stress on forming free, rational citizens than on raising the level of technical competence in America, while the opposition came not only from defenders of rote learning, but equally from mathematicians who focused on the instrumental value of mathematics for science and technology.”

**John L. Rudolph, University of Wisconsin-Madison | author of "Scientists in the Classroom: The Cold War Reconstruction of American Science Education"**

“At the intersection of the history of science and history of education,

*The New Math*offers a compelling argument for understanding curriculum reform efforts in mathematics within the context of postwar/Cold War America. Making sense of these reform efforts as a response to the American experience after the war—including the efforts to return to normalcy, the rise of mass/consumer culture, the explosion of an unsettling (for adults) new youth culture, the expansion of secondary education, and the ascendancy of academic (particularly scientific and technical) expertise—enables the story of the new math reforms to shed a broader light on the political and cultural changes taking place during this period. This story provides insights into public perceptions of expertise and the perceived role of the academic (or any kind of) expert in American culture. A quality piece of scholarship.”**Peter Galison, Harvard University | coauthor of "Objectivity"**

“‘New Math’ would make a new kind of free American citizen, would put calculation on a firm basis, would restore mathematics to its rightful (high) perch in the intellectual world; it would destroy education, it would make American education into a laughingstock. Full of hope and hyperbole, claims for the new Cold War textbooks could not have been more extreme. In this remarkable book, Phillips tracks this attempt at a national—even international—reform in how schoolchildren would learn math and so come to reason more generally. Rich in sources, precise in history, and ambitious in contextualizing the new math, this book adds powerfully to our understanding of twentieth-century science education, and to debates as to what it means to understand mathematics.”

**David Kaiser, MIT | author of "How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival"**

“

*The New Math*is ambitious, rich, and remarkably well-written. During the middle decades of the twentieth century, many groups struggled to articulate what ‘mathematics’ is, what ‘mathematicians’ actually do, and how a new approach to mathematics instruction could craft ideal citizens in America’s schools. Mathematics teaching became a symbolic arena to sort out competing notions of proper thinking in the nuclear age. Drawing upon an impressive range of sources, Phillips vividly charts the surprising plasticity of ‘mathematics’ among professional scholars and the voting public in Cold War America.”**Jamie Cohen-Cole, George Washington University | author of "The Open Mind: Cold War Politics and the Sciences of Human Nature"**

“In this history of the new math, Phillips reconstructs how techniques for teaching arithmetic, geometry, and algebra embedded at once professional views of the constitution of modern mathematics and social and political concerns of the Cold War era. Recovering debates that ranged from the grassroots to professional mathematicians and the National Science Foundation, this fascinating book demonstrates how both supporters and opponents of the new math believed that citizenship, democracy, and the social order depended not only on children learning mathematics, but how they learned it and how they thought about it.”

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