Mill on Democracy
From the Athenian Polis to Representative Government
Redirecting attention to Mill as a political thinker, Nadia Urbinati argues that this claim misrepresents Mill's thinking. Although he did not elaborate a theory of democracy, Mill did devise new avenues of democratic participation in government that could absorb the transformation of politics engendered by the institution of representation. More generally, Urbinati assesses Mill's contribution to modern democratic theory by critiquing the dominant "two liberties" narrative that has shaped Mill scholarship over the last several decades. As Urbinati shows, neither Isaiah Berlin's theory of negative and positive freedom nor Quentin Skinner's theory of liberty as freedom from domination adequately captures Mill's notion of political theory.
Drawing on Mill's often overlooked writings on ancient Greece, Urbinati shows that Mill saw the ideal representative government as a "polis of the moderns," a metamorphosis of the unique features of the Athenian polis: the deliberative character of its institutions and politics; the Socratic ethos; and the cooperative implications of political agonism and dissent. The ancient Greeks, Urbinati shows, and Athenians in particular, are the key to understanding Mill's contribution to modern democratic theory and the theory of political liberty.
Urbinati concludes by demonstrating the importance of Mill's deliberative model of politics to the contemporary debate on liberal and republican views of liberty. Her fresh and persuasive approach not only clarifies Mill's political ideas but also illustrates how they can help enrich our contemporary understanding of democracy.
1. The Modernity of Athens
The Ancients of the Moderns
Beyond the French Liberals
Against the British "Reactionaries"
2. The Polis of the Moderns
Are Mill's Politics Platonist?
Bureaucratic Despotism and the Displacement of Politics
"Talking" and "Doing"
Silence and Speech
The Politics of Indirectness
3. The Agora Model
Voice as Presence and Proportional Representation
Advocacy and Deliberation
The Two Faces of Representation
Procedural Equality and an Unequal Political Influence
Publicity, Sincerity, and Responsible Participation
4. The Socratic Ethos
The Sovereignty of the Individual
From Sophism to Socratism
The Public Critic
A Political Virtue of the Moderns
5. Democratic Liberty and Society
Beyond the Theory of the Two Liberties
Liberty as Freedom from Subjection
Subjection as Infantilization
Cooperation and the Democratic Project
Conference/Study of Political Thought: Elaine and David Spitz Book Prize