Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome

Caleb E. Finch

Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome
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Caleb E. Finch

938 pages | 243 illustrations | 6-5/8 x 9-3/8 | © 1990
Paper $75.00 ISBN: 9780226248899 Published May 1994
Featuring extensive references, updated for this paperback edition, Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome constitutes a landmark contribution to biomedicine and the evolutionary biology of aging.

To enhance gerontology's focus on human age-related dysfunctions, Caleb E. Finch provides a comparative review of all the phyla of organisms, broadening gerontology to intersect with behavioral, developmental, evolutionary, and molecular biology. By comparing species that have different developmental and life spans, Finch proposes an original typology of senescence from rapid to gradual to negligible, and he provides the first multiphyletic calculations of mortality rate constants.
Contents
Preface
Synopsis
Section I. The Comparative Biology of Senescence
1. Introduction
1.1 The Agenda
1.2 Definitions and Concepts
1.3 Sources of Information and Experimental Approaches
1.4 Mortality Rates and Lifespans
1.5 Evolution and the Relationships between Reproduction and Senescence
1.6 Summary
2 Rapid Senescence and Sudden Death
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Developmental Determinants of Rapid Senescence
2.3 Reproduction-related Rapid Senescence and Sudden Death
3. Gradual Senescence with Definite Lifespan
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Clonal Senescence in Ciliates
3.3 Plants and Invertebrates
3.4 Fish and Lower Vertebrates
3.5 Birds
3.6 Mammals
3.7 Summary
4. Negligible Senescence
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Indeterminante Lifespans and Negligible Senescence
4.3 Finite Lifespans with Negligible Senescence
4.4 Vegetative Reproduction by Somatic Cell Cloning
4.5 Summary of Chapters 2-4
5. Rates of Living and Dying: Correlations of Lifespan with Size, Metabolic Rates, and Cellular and Biochemical Characteristics
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Correlations of Body Size and Metabolic Rates
5.3 Lifespan, Size, and Metabolism
5.4 Cellular and Biochemical Correlations with Lifespan
5.5 Summary
6. Genetic Influences on Lifespan, Mortality Rates, and Age-related Diseases
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Nematode Caenorhabditis
6.3 Insects
6.4 Fungi and Plants
6.5 Mammals
6.6 Summary
Section II. Genomic Functions during Senescence
7. Gene Expression and Macromolecular Biosynthesis
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Caveats and Perspectives
7.3 Differential Gene Expression
7.4 RNA and Protein Synthesis
7.5 Post-translational Modifications
7.6 Cell Proliferation and DNA Synthesis
7.7 Cell Death
7.8 Memories and Gene Expression
7.9 Summary
8. Fidelity and Maintenance of Genomic DNA and Its Replication during Senescence
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Somatic Cells and Age-related Modifications of Genetic Structure
8.3 Cancer and Age-related Genetic Changes
8.4 Plasmids and Episomes in Somatic Cells
8.5 Parental Age and Abnormalities in Gametogenesis, Fertility, and Development
8.6 Summary
9. Developmental Influences on Lifespan and Senescence
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Influences on Total Lifespan through Variable Durations of Developmental Stages
9.3 Developmental Influences on Patterns of Senescence
9.4 Developmental Determinants of Regeneration and Cell Renewal
9.5 Summary
10. Postmaturational Influences on the Phenotypes of Senescence
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ambient Temperature and Lifespan
10.3 Diet and Caloric Restriction
10.4 Sex Hormones
10.5 Stress and Corticosteroids
10.6 Costs of Reproduction and Accelerated Senescence
10.7 Immunological Changes and Hormones
10.8 Hypophysectomy
10.9 The Biomarker Problem: How to Measure Influences on Senescence
10.10 Summary
11. Phylogeny and Evolutionary Changes in Longevity and Senescence
11.1 Introduction
11.2 An Outline of Evolution and a Discussion of Early Biochemical and Molecular Changes
11.3 Examples of Phylogenetic Variations in Senescence and Longevity
11.4 Factors in the Evolution of Senescence and Longevity
11.5 Summary
12. Genome Mechanisms in the Biology of Extended Time
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Agenda Revisited
12.3 Exogenous Factors, Endogenous Factors, and Cascades
12.4 Types of Genetic Influence on the Lifespan
12.5 Aging in the Biology of Extended Time
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Glossary
Bibliography
Author Index
Species Index
Subject Index
For more information, or to order this book, please visit http://www.press.uchicago.edu
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