Higher Education and the State in Latin America

Private Challenges to Public Dominance

Daniel C. Levy

Higher Education and the State in Latin America
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Daniel C. Levy

452 pages | © 1986
Cloth $55.00 ISBN: 9780226476087 Published March 1986
Latin America higher education has undergone an astonishing transformation in recent years, highlighted by the private sector's growth from 3 to 34 percent of the region's total enrollment. In this provocative work Daniel Levy examines the sources, characteristics, and consequences of the development and considers the privatization of higher education within the broader context of state-society relationships.

Levy shows how specific national circumstances cause variations and identifies three basic private-public patterns: one in which the private and public sectors are relatively similar and those in which one sector or the other is dominant. These patterns are analyzed in depth in case studies of Chile, Mexico, and Brazil. For each sector, Levy investigates origins and growth, and then who pays, who rules, and whose interests are served.

In addition to providing a wealth of information, Levy offers incisive analyses of the nature of public and private institutions. Finally, he explores the implications of his findings for concepts such as autonomy, corporatism, and privatization. His multifaceted study is a major contribution to the literature on Latin American studies, comparative politics, and higher education.
Contents
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
Acknowledgments
1. Issues and Concepts
Issues
Introduction and Themes
Private Challenges to Public Dominance
Private-Public Policy Debates
The Literature
Concepts
The State
Private and Public
U.S. and European Models
Overview of Chapters
2. Private versus Public Growth
Analytical Categories
The Genesis of Public and Private Sectors
Private/Public Fusion
Private-Public Separation: Public Monopoly
The Catholic Reaction: Wave I
Public Sector Evolution: Toward Perceived "Failure"
Traditional Public Sector Exclusiveness
Public Sector Growth
Institutional Proliferation
From Public Failures to Private Alternatives
Social-Class Failure: Declining Elitism
Political Failure: Politicization
Economic Failure: Modernization and Dependency
The Wave II Backlash to Wave I
State Support for Private Alternatives
Nonelite Private Alternatives: Wave III
Entrée
3. Private-Public Homogeneity: Chile
The Context
Evolution
Estado Docente
Dual Sectors and Homogenization (1888-1973)
Proliferation and Retrenchment (1973-1983)
Finance
A Public System
Pushing Dual Sector Privatization
Governance
The National University as State Regulator
Institutional Governance
Authoritarian Control and U.S. Models
Function
Religious Orientations
Partisan Political Orientations
Field and Job-Market Orientations
Clientele and Social Class
Quality
Conclusion
4. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Mexico
The Context
Evolution
From Private-Public to Mostly Public
The Rise of Private Alternatives
Finance
Tuition
The Nonprofit/For-Profit Connection
Governance
Profiles of Private Power
State Licensing
Comparing Private to Public Governance
Function
Values: Religious, Political, and Nationalist
Fields of Study
Employment: Private Enterprise or the State?
Quality
Conclusion
5. Private-Public Distinctiveness: Brazil
The Context
Evolution
Retarded Public Sector Development
Creating the Private Sector
Private versus Public Growth
Finance
The Private Sector
The Public Sector
Governance
Students and the State
Institutions and the State
Public Sector Reform
Function
Religious Orientations
Field and Job-Market Orientations
Quality
Implications
6. Overview of Latin America
Case Study Frameworks
Finance
The Public Sector
The Catholic Subsector
The Secular Elite Subsector
The Demand-Absorbing Subsector
Governance
The Public Sector: Autonomy and State Control
The Public Sector: Institutional Decentralization
The Private Sector: Autonomy from State Control
The Private Sector: Institutional Centralization
Function
Religious Missions
Political Ideologies
Economic Orientations: Field of Study
Economic Orientations: The Job Market
Quality and Prestige
Conclusion
7. The Consequences of Privatization: Reconceptualizing
Rationale
Private Versus Public
Sector Versus Sector
Stereotypes, Foreign Models, and Comparative Perspectives
Privateness versus Publicness
Evaluating Privatization
The Success Story
The Negative Side
Freedom, Choice, Equity, and Effectiveness
The State and Higher Education
Serving the State
Corporatism?
Privatization
Conclusion
Appendixes A-J
Notes
Select Bibliography
Index


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