Submission Guidelines

Information for Authors

General Information

Pulmonary Circulation (PC) is designed to be the main communicating medium connecting physicians and research scientists who are interested in the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary vascular diseases, and lung injury. It publishes new material—in the form of original research articles, comprehensive reviews, case reports, and guidelines and consensus articles—that is expected to serve the interests of people in all parts of the world. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically at the journal’s submission website, at

Authorship and Disclosures

PC welcomes submissions from clinicians, clinical scientists, investigators, and any other professional working in the fields of the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary vascular diseases, and lung injury. At the time a manuscript is submitted, all authors are required to disclose all relevant financial support and conflicts of interest in the acknowledgments section of the manuscript (see appropriate section of “Manuscript Preparation” below). If your manuscript is the report of a randomized clinical trial that has been registered in a public trials registry, please provide the trial registry name, the registration identification number, and the URL for the registry at the end of the abstract. This information will be published in the journal if the manuscript is accepted.

Article Types

  • Original research article: Abstract no more than 250 words, text no more than 9,000 words. No more than 8 tables and figures, no more than 80 references.


  • Pulmonary Circulation considers all types of original research articles, including clinical and basic research conducted in human subjects and laboratory animals and in vitro, randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rates. Article components are abstract, keywords, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references, figures, and tables.
  • Selection and description of participants: Clearly describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls), including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.
  • Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and city in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (


  • Review article:Abstract no more than 250 words, text no more than 15,000 words. No more than 15 tables or figures, no more than 200 references.


  • Pulmonary Circulation publishes comprehensive reviews on topics related to the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary vascular disease, and lung injury. Review articles usually are invited by the editors, and unsolicited manuscripts will generally not be considered for publication. It is expected that these articles will be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field. Components are abstract, keywords, discussion (main text), summary (including conclusions and future directions), acknowledgments, references, figures (at least 3 and up to 15 schematic diagrams, color images of representative data, flow charts, etc.), figure legends, and tables.


  • Case report: Abstract no more than 200 words, text no more than 1,000 (traditional) or 2,500 (extensive) words. No more than 6 tables or figures, no more than 25 references.


  • New, interesting, and rare cases can be reported. They should be unique, describing a great diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and providing a learning point for the readers. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. Components of case reports are abstract, discussion, acknowledgments, references, figures (ideally, up to 6 figures), figure legends, and tables.


  • Guideline/consensus article or conference paper: Same as review article.


  • Research letter: Abstract of no more than 50 words. No more than 1,500 words, no more than 1 table or figure, no more than 20 references.


  • A short clinical research paper that describes the novel observations from a small cohort of patients or a short, basic, important, and translational research paper that describes extremely novel results.


  • Letter to the editor: No abstract. Text no more than 350 words, no figures or tables, no more than 5 references.


  • Letters to the editor pertain directly to an article published in the journal within the preceding 8 weeks. Authors of the original article cited in the letter will be invited to reply. Letters to the editor should be submitted via the online manuscript submission process.

Manuscript Preparation

Authors are encouraged to follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (; this is the format used in PubMed/MEDLINE. Authors should strive for a concise article that is unencumbered by excessive detail. Authors who are not fluent in English should have their manuscript checked by a native speaker of English and/or an editing service that provides such assistance. Manuscripts that do not follow the required format or are poorly prepared may be rejected for that reason.


Double space the entire manuscript, including title page, abstract, body, references, tables, and figure legends. Use left justification only, so that the right margin is ragged; the first line of each paragraph should be indented. Use a standard font (such as Times New Roman or Helvetica) and set the font size to 12 points (for tables as well as text). Each component of the article should begin on a separate page, in this order: title page, abstract, body text, acknowledgments (including sources of support and conflicts of interest), references, appendixes, figure legends, and tables. Use the page numbering feature, and number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page and continuing through all pages for tables and figure legends; all of this should be in the same file, and there should be no attempt to conform to the appearance of the typeset journal in any of these elements. Submit each figure as a separate file (see below).


  • Title Page: The title page of the manuscript should include only the following information:
    • total number of manuscript pages;
    • total number of figures;
    • word count for the body of the text;
    • type of contribution (original article, review article, case report, letter to editor, etc.);
    • article title and running head (short title/header);
    • names of all authors, with names in the order in which they should appear in the article;
    • affiliations (departments) and/or institutions to which the work should be credited (these should be keyed to the individual authors via symbols or may appear with each author’s name);
    • the corresponding author’s name, including highest academic degree, and contact information (mailing address, including postal code; e-mail address; and telephone number);
    • three to five keywords that describe the content of the manuscript but that are not included in the title of the manuscript.


  • Abstract: A succinct description, in a single paragraph, of the article’s main points, the abstract should not be redundant of the author’s introduction in the main text. The abstract must not exceed 200 or 250 words in length; see “Article Types.”

  • Subheadings: The main sections and subdivisions of the body text should be indicated by side heads flush with the left margin and two lines above the text. (Do not attempt to replicate the appearance of subheadings you see in the journal.) A section should have more than one subdivision if it is subdivided at all.


    • Original research articles: The introductory section must be untitled. Must have “Methods,” “Results,” and “Discussion” sections, with those headings. Conclusions and the like can be a subdivision of the discussion but not a separate section.

    • Review and consensus/guideline articles, and conference papers: The introductory section must be untitled. Authors can use any section titles they like after that, but the last section should be titled “Summary,” “Conclusions,” or the like.

    • Case reports: Must begin with a “Case description” section, which can be subdivided if more than one case is reported. A “Discussion” section is permitted but not required.

  • Body Text
    • Methods, Results, Discussion

    • Keep methods, results, and discussion distinct and separate. The methods section should provide detail sufficient to allow others to recreate your experiment. Methods may not be described or restated in figure legends or table notes but must be all together in the methods section. The results section contains the previously unpublished data derived by this application of your methods, without commentary (beyond the minimum that might be necessary to ensure intelligibility to the reader). The discussion section contains your interpretation of the reported data and comments on its meaning. There should be no separate section labeled “Conclusion.”

    • Avoid duplicating in the text data that have been provided in tables or figures (minimal duplication, for emphasis or clarity, is acceptable). Also avoid duplication within the text; for example, the discussion section should not restate all the findings that have been presented in results and/or in tables and figures.

    • Clinical Trials


    • The editor requests that authors reporting the results of clinical trials describe clearly the following: (1) eligibility criteria; (2) whether subjects were admitted before allocation to one of the study groups; (3) the method of randomization; (4) whether the study was “masked,” what specific information was masked, and whether subjects, clinicians, and evaluators were masked; (5) the method used to identify treatment complications; (6) an explanation and analysis of subjects lost to follow-up; (7) statistical methods used; and (8) information that led to the determination of the size of the study groups and the expected differences between groups. For all studies involving human subjects, the methods section should include a statement that the study was reviewed and approved by the authors’ institutional review board.

    • Abbreviations

    • Abbreviations (please follow the AMA Manual of Style) may be used, but all abbreviations must be defined at first use (separately for the abstract, the body, and each table and figure). Use only common abbreviations, and use as few as possible; do not abbreviate terms that are used fewer than five times. Abbreviate genus names after the first mention with the same species name.


    • Generic Names


    • Chemical or generic names of drugs, materials, and equipment are strongly preferred; a proprietary name may be given only after it is preceded by the generic or chemical name the first time it appears and must be followed by the name and location of the manufacturer or supplier.


    • Numbers

    • Numbers of four digits include a comma. Include the leading zero before the decimal for all values. Use all numbers for ranges (e.g., 345–357, not 345–57). Use either the mL/kg or mL kg-1 format, but be consistent throughout.          

    • Footnotes

    • Footnotes are acceptable in tables but not in the body of the manuscript.

Sources of Support, Conflicts of Interest, Acknowledgments

At the time a manuscript is submitted, all authors are required to disclose all relevant financial support and conflicts of interest. If your manuscript is the report of a randomized clinical trial that has been registered in a public trials registry, please provide the trial registry name, the registration identification number, and the URL for the registry at the end of the abstract. This information will be published in the journal if the manuscript is accepted.


All sources of financial support for the work, including any financial arrangement with a company whose product is related to the study, must be stated. If there was no financial support, that too should be stated.


There is a potential conflict of interest when anyone involved in the publication process has a financial or other beneficial interest in the products or concepts mentioned in a submitted manuscript, or in competing products, that might bias his or her judgment. Examples of potential conflicts of interest with respect to a company whose product is mentioned in the manuscript include owning stock (except as part of a diversified portfolio), receiving grants, serving as a consultant, or being on the speakers’ bureau.


Including an acknowledgments paragraph is optional. If you choose to thank individuals, obtain permission from them for their names to appear in your paper, and provide full names.

Prior presentation at a meeting may be included in the acknowledgments.


  • Citation of References in the Text

  • Pulmonary Circulation follows AMA reference and citation style, except as noted below. References should be cited consecutively in the text, with superscript numbers placed outside punctuation. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered as though all were cited at the point at which the table or figure was first mentioned in the body text.

  • A paper that is forthcoming may be included in the reference list if it has been accepted for publication. Citations such as “in preparation,” “submitted for publication,” “unpublished data,” and “personal communication” should be given in parentheses in the text only, including the names of all individuals to whom the information should be attributed and the month and year of the information’s origin. For personal communications, specify whether the communication was written or oral.


  • Reference List

  • The accuracy of the reference list is the responsibility of the author; please verify all references against the original sources. Also, please carefully follow journal style for presentation of the references. List the references, double spaced, in numerical order, according to the order they are cited and numbered in the text. (See “Citation of References in Text” above.) Include all authors up to 10; if there are more than 10 authors, list the first seven and add “et al.” See the examples below for the style for presenting author names and initials. Use all numbers for page ranges (e.g., 345–357, not 345–57). URLs and DOI numbers are permitted. Capitalize only the first letter of all titles and any proper nouns. Use no italics (except for genus and species names) or quotation marks unless a title includes quotes.


    • Journal article
    • The journal name should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus; use the complete name for nonindexed journals.

      Example: Howard LS, Crosby A, Vaughan P, Sobolewski A, Southwood M, Foster ML, Chilvers ER, Morrell NW. Distinct responses to hypoxia in subpopulations of distal pulmonary artery cells contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in emphysema. Pulm Circ 2012;2(2):241–249.


    • Book
    • Include place of publication, followed by a colon, before the name of the publisher. Include edition number if other than the first. No italics; capitalize titles sentence style. Do not include total number of pages.

      Example: Yuan JXJ. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Boston: Kluwer, 2004.


    • Chapter from a book
    • Include the chapter title, capitalized sentence style, no quotes; also include inclusive page numbers for the chapter. Include the names of the book’s editors in addition to the usual information for a book reference, as shown in the example.

      Example: Verkhratsky A. Calcium and cell death. In: Carafoli E, Brini M, eds. Calcium signalling and disease: molecular pathology of calcium. New York: Springer, 2008:465-480.


    • Other types of works
    • For references to other types of works, use the examples in the Citing Medicine: NLM Style Guide (


Prepare tables with the MS Word table editor; text formatted to look like a table by use of tabs and hard returns is not acceptable and will be rejected. Include tables in the same file as the rest of the manuscript, not in separate files. Tables should be double spaced. Number tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and provide a descriptive title for each table.

Every column in a table requires a head that describes the contents of the cells below. The units of measure for all data must be clearly stated in the heads, in the stub (leftmost) column, or in data cells, as appropriate. Do not use vertical lines, and do not use ditto marks for repeated information.

List and define any abbreviations in a note below the table, above the table footnotes (no footnote designator is required for this line), even if the abbreviations have been defined in the text. Use superscript letters for footnote designators.

Figures and Figure Legends

  • Figures
  • Number figures in the order in which they are mentioned in the text, and provide a brief but descriptive caption (legend) for each figure. All artwork (figures, photographs, illustrations, schematic diagrams, color images, flow charts, etc.) should be submitted as digital files. The required format is TIFF or EPS, with the following resolutions: 1,200 dpi for line figures (e.g., graphs), 600 dpi for grayscale figures (e.g., photographs), and 300 dpi for color figures. PowerPoint, Word, and JPEG files will not be accepted. Each figure or illustration must be a stand-alone file, separate from the text file, and named to match the number cited in the text (e.g., fig1.eps). Do not include titles and legends in illustration files.

    • Figures should be created with the final print size in mind:
    1. 1-Column [width 3.25”/85 mm]
    2. 2-Column [width 7”/175 mm]


    • The required font style is Arial. The size of the text should be consistent throughout the figures and, when possible, across all figures. The font size should be at least 8 points and no larger than 12 points.
  • Legends.
  • The text of the figure legend should concisely and accurately label what the figure depicts and define any abbreviations or terms used within it. The figure legend should not describe or restate methods, state or restate detailed findings, or state a claim or conclusion drawn from the data displayed. Such statements belong in the appropriate section of the body text, not in a figure legend.

  • Double space legends on a separate page of the manuscript. (This is because a figure is reproduced as an image file, while the legend that accompanies the figure is typeset as text.) Place figure titles and explanations in the legend, not on the figure image. On the other hand, graphic elements that require definition, such as symbols, are best placed and defined in available open space within the figure image itself.

  • If the figure has been published elsewhere, it is the responsibility of the authors to obtain permissions for reusing the figure in work submitted to PC. Please acknowledge that permission in the figure legend.

Author Publication Fee

In order to continue to provide our readers across the globe with free Open Access to the journal, we have instituted a publication fee. For manuscripts initially submitted on or after January 1, 2015, the author will be required to pay a publication fee if the manuscript is ultimately accepted for publication (if the manuscript is not accepted, there will be no fee). The fee will be assessed at the time the author receives proofs. Not all article types are subject to the charge: for Original Research articles and Guidelines articles, the publication fee is $1,000. For a traditional Case Report (up to 1,000 words), the fee is $500, and for an Extended Case Report (up to 2,500 words), the fee is $750. For other article types, including invited articles, there is no fee. If you need more information, contact the managing editor at the editorial office.

Online-Only Material

All supplemental materials, including supplemental figures, tables, videos, appendices, etc. will appear online only and not in print. Please clearly label any supplemental material when uploading it during submission and include supplemental figures in the legend.