Disclosure Policy

In an effort to promote consistent standards and requirements among general-interest journals in the field of economics, the Journal of Law and Economics has adopted the AER disclosure policy. We are grateful to the editors of the American Economic Review for their leadership in constructing this policy.


The JLE believes that it is in the authors’ best interest to disclose potential conflicts of interest. In cases of uncertainty regarding whether to disclose a particular relationship, a guiding principle should be the answer to the question, would I or my institution be embarrassed if I had not disclosed this relationship and it was subsequently discovered? If the answer to this question is yes, the relationship should be disclosed.


Therefore, all submissions, including revisions, must be accompanied by this JLE disclosure statement form. Only this form may be used.



Every submitted article should state the sources of financial support for the particular research it describes. If none, that fact should be stated. Failure to disclose relevant information at the submission stage may result in reversal of acceptance decisions.


Each author of a submitted article should identify each interested party from whom he or she has received significant financial support, summing to at least $10,000 in the past three years, in the form of consultant or expert-witness fees, retainers, grants, and the like. If an author has been involved in a case, we will actively seek a reviewer from the other side.


The disclosure requirement also includes in-kind support, such as providing access to data. If the support in question comes with a nondisclosure obligation, that fact should be stated along with as much information as the obligation permits. If there are no such sources of funds, that fact should be stated explicitly. An “interested party” is any individual, group, or organization that has a financial, ideological, or political stake related to the article.


Each author should disclose any paid or unpaid positions as officer, director, or board member of relevant nonprofit organizations or profit-making entities. A “relevant organization” is one whose policy positions, goals, or financial interests relate to the article.


The disclosures required above apply to any close relative or partner of any author.


Each author must disclose if another party, including general counsel or data provider, had the right to review the paper prior to its circulation.


For papers accepted for publication, disclosure will take two forms. Brief disclosure statements will be included in the acknowledgment footnote. Longer disclosure statements will have two parts: a brief statement summarizing potential conflicts of interest in the acknowledgments footnote and a more detailed description of the activities and relationships that are the source of a potential conflict of interest, which will be available on the JLE’s Web site. The acknowledgment footnote in the online version of the paper will include a link to the detailed disclosure statement archived on the JLE’s Web site.