Instructions for Authors

Manuscript Submission

Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts online via the Economic Development and Cultural Change Editorial Manager system at Detailed instructions are available below. Authors without Internet access should contact the editorial office for instructions. It is no longer necessary to submit a hard copy in addition to an electronic submission.


Statement of Policy

Economic Development and Cultural Change (EDCC) is a multidisciplinary journal that publishes studies using modern theoretical and empirical approaches examining both determinants and effects of various dimensions of economic development and cultural change. The journal focuses on empirical, scientifically based studies that use appropriate data to test theoretical models and to explore policy impacts related to a broad range of topics within the field of economic development. EDCC is fundamentally interested in exploring what scientific evidence can tell us about policy issues related to economic development. We publish not only papers with new insights but also carefully executed replications exploring the robustness of results to different data, diverse model specifications, or ways of estimation.

seeks articles that address: basic economic factors associated with development, including technological change, human resource investments, and economic incentives; noneconomic factors and their interrelationships with economic factors in affecting development and being changed by development; data quality-comparing the results of different methods to collect data and define variables for testing of behavior and for policy.


Evaluation of Manuscripts

Manuscripts will be considered for appropriateness to EDCC by the Editor with assistance from the Associate Editors. Those manuscripts considered appropriate will be sent to outside experts for review; those not appropriate will be declined outright. The manuscript and referees reports are evaluated by an Associate Editor, who recommends that the Editor either accept, reject, or return the manuscript to the authors for revision. A request for revision does not guarantee the article will be accepted for publication.


Duplicate Publication

Papers are considered for publication in EDCC on condition that they are not under consideration by another publication and no part of the manuscript has been published elsewhere (including in another language or as part of a book). Simultaneous submission to another journal is cause for immediate withdrawal of the manuscript from the review process.



EDCC does not have a submission fee. Referees volunteer their time and expertise; they are not compensated in any way. Authors are asked to follow all instructions carefully so that the review process might run as smoothly and efficiently as possible for all involved.


Proof alterations. Authors may be charged for overly extensive proof alterations, other than those made to correct errors or misleading statements.


Reprints. Authors must pay for any reprints they wish to order. Instructions for ordering reprints will accompany the proofs. Each author will receive two complimentary copies of the issue in which the manuscript appears.

Types of Articles

EDCC considers articles that conform to the following rules:


Articles are substantive, unsolicited contributions that report relevant investigations or observations within EDCC's scope of interests. Abstracts are required and should not exceed 150-200 words. Figures and tables may be included, but data should not be repeated in both a table and a figure. Occasionally, the articles published in EDCC make up the proceedings of a symposium or conference.


EDCC no longer publishes book reviews, and will not accept books for review or book review proposals.


Notice of Acceptance

The corresponding author for a manuscript accepted for publication will receive a formal letter of acceptance and publication agreement form to be signed by all authors (only U.S. government employees are not required to sign this form). The letter will include any final revisions requested by the Editor and information on formatting the final submission according to EDCC guidelines. Please do not submit a final version of your manuscript until you have received these instructions. Once we have received the final version of your manuscript (including all requisite electronic files), you will receive notice of editing and production schedules.



Unless the decision letter or reviews indicate otherwise, authors may not increase the length of the manuscript, or it will be returned to be shortened. Please include a cover letter with a point-by-point response to the referee's comments and indicate any additional changes you have made.


Print and Electronic Publication

Accepted articles are published in both the print and the electronic editions of EDCC. Abstracts are available only in the electronic edition.



EDCC reserves the right to copyedit all manuscripts for clarity, conciseness, grammar, and journal style. Authors will have an opportunity to review editing changes in page proofs but must limit their alterations to correcting errors and clarifying misleading statements. The publisher will notify the corresponding author when proofs are available on the publisher's website and will include instructions on how to download and make corrections. Proofs must be returned to the publisher by the designated deadline, to prevent publication delays or postponement of the manuscript to a later issue.


Formatting Electronic Files

Please adhere to the requirements below when submitting a new or revised manuscript via Editorial Manager. The system relies on automated processing to create an Adobe Acrobat PDF file from your submission. If you do not follow these instructions, your submission cannot be processed and will not be received by the journal office.


Acceptable Formats

  • Microsoft Word (.doc)(any version that can be read by Word 2000 for Windows)
  • Adobe Acrobat PDF (.pdf)
  • LaTeX (.tex)(recommended for articles containing extensive math)
  • Rich Text Format (.rtf)


File Contents

Word documents should be submitted as a single file. Authors should submit figures as separate files, in TIFF (.tif) or EPS (.eps) (not GIF [.gif] or JPEG [.jpg]) format.


For LaTeX documents, keep the figure and table files separate and reference them in the main file by using the appropriate commands. It is also important to reference and include the necessary style files (.sty) needed to compile your submission. Electronic versions of figures should be in TIFF or EPS (not GIF or JPEG) format. If you submit a LaTeX file, all figures and tables should be external files but referenced within the main "ms.tex" file. LaTeX is especially recommended for articles containing extensive math; authors of math-intensive manuscripts can use the AASTeX manuscript package available at


Please note that authors of accepted manuscripts may be required to submit high-resolution hard copies of all figures during production, as not all digital art files are usable.


In addition to the main manuscript file, submit your cover letter as a separate file in the same format as your main file. If you used any revision or editorial tracking tools in your word-processing program, be sure the final version of your manuscript does not contain tracked changes.


File Compression and Archives

If you have more than two files to upload into the system (e.g., manuscript, figures, and cover letter), we recommend you combine these files into an archive, so you upload only a single file when submitting the manuscript. Applications for Mac OS (such as Stuffit) and Windows (such as WinZip) support the formats listed below.


The following archive formats may be used:

  • Windows or Unix zip (e.g., "")
  • Unix tar (e.g., "archive.tar" or compressed with a gzip as "archive.tar.gz" or "archive.tgz")


If you cannot create archives in these formats, you may still compress individual files to shorten upload time:

  • Unix compress (e.g., "ms.tex.Z")
  • Unix gzip (e.g., "ms.tex.gz")


Revised and Final Versions of Manuscripts

If you are submitting a revised manuscript, please include your responses to the reviewers' comments as part of the cover letter file. When submitting a revised manuscript with figures, include all figures, even if they have not changed since the previous version. The final version of your manuscript must be submitted in Word (doc.), Rich Text (.rtf), or LaTeX (.tex) format, because your keystrokes will be used in publication; a PDF does not contain usable keystrokes and is thus not adequate. For both revised and final versions of manuscripts, please observe the same formatting instructions outlined above.


General Specifications

Manuscripts must be written in English; authors must ensure their manuscript is grammatical and intelligible. The Editor may request that manuscripts not conforming to this guideline be rewritten.


  • Manuscripts should be double spaced throughout, including references, tables, and figure legends.
  • Use 1-inch margins on all sides, and do not justify the right margin.
  • Number all pages consecutively beginning with the title page.
  • Begin each section of the manuscript on a separate page, as follows: title page, abstract, text, references, tables, figure legends, and figures.
  • Avoid unnecessary formatting for the sake of appearance; most formatting is discarded during conversion for editing, and overly complex formatting may interfere with conversion.
  • Use the same standard 12-point font throughout the manuscript.


Title Page

The title page should include the following elements:


  • A concise, informative title
  • The names and affiliations of all authors
  • A short (running) title of no more than 40 characters and spaces
  • The name, mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author (or corresponding author, if more than one author)
  • Any acknowledgments to those who assisted the authors, placed in a footnote to the title.



All articles must include an abstract of not more than 150-200 words. The abstract will be used to find suitable reviewers for your manuscript and will be published in the EDCC electronic edition, in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), in e-JEL for AEA members, and in JEL on CD. Abstracts should be included within the body of the manuscript and must also be submitted within the appropriate field on the Editorial Manager submission form.



  • Use special typefaces (boldface, italic, underlined, etc.) sparingly and only as necessary.
  • Avoid use of borders, rules, bullets, and indentations.
  • Use hard returns (the "Enter" key) only to end a heading or paragraph and begin a new one, not to end a line early or to make the right margin appear indented.
  • Do not use the "Tab" key to indent lists or reference entries; instead, change your software's indent settings.
  • Do not employ any automatic numbering tool; all numbers appearing in your article must be explicitly typed in or they may drop out during conversion for editing.


Abbreviations. The use of abbreviations is discouraged, except for those considered standard. Abbreviations may be used if necessary but should appear in parentheses the first time they are used in the text - for example, "Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS)."


Style. For spelling, authors should refer to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., and Webster's New International Dictionary, 3rd ed. For grammar, punctuation, abbreviation, and style advice, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (University of Chicago Press). Please follow the American (not British) conventions for spelling and punctuation.


Symbols and special characters. Any unusual symbols should be explained in the text. Foreign language spellings, diacritics, and transliterations are the responsibility of the author. Retain the conventions of the original language (i.e., do not disregard diacritical marks). Use transliteration systems consistently, and use the system regarded as standard for your discipline. If you must do otherwise, please explain why, either in the text or in a note. For further information about symbols, foreign language, and other non-ASCII characters, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.


Equations. Any equation or mathematical expression of two levels or more should be set as a display equation - that is, typed on a line by itself in the text, with space above and below. Equations should be numbered, with the number in parentheses at the right end of the line on which the display equation is set. Number all equations consecutively and consistently. To ensure your meaning is clear to the manuscript's referees, be sure to use the correct special characters in all equations. If you are unable to produce the character you desire in your software program, be consistent in what you do use. For further information on producing equations, see the Guidelines for Mathematical and Other Non-ASCII Symbols.



Documentation should be presented in author-date style, with all cited references collected in an alphabetical list titled "References." This list should start a new page in the manuscript file. Every work cited in the text, notes, appendixes, tables, and figures must appear in the References; conversely, every work listed in the References should be cited in the text or elsewhere in the article. When all authors are the same, use a dash for subsequent entries and order those entries chronologically. When there are two or more publications by the same author(s) in the same year, list them alphabetically by title and use 2003a, 2003b.


In text, references should be cited in chronological order. For three authors, write out all the names the first time cited, and for citations thereafter use the first author's last name with "et al." For four or more authors, use the first author's name and "et al." every time.


Cite references in text by last name of author and year, usually in parentheses (e.g., Johnson 1996, 1998; Yang 1997a, 1997b; OECD 2001; Knowles and Garces-Ozanne 2003). Specific page numbers or references to tables or figures are also cited in parentheses (Meng 1997, 62; Adams 2002, table 1). If the name of the author cited is part of the text, only the date should appear in parentheses: " Johnson (1996) emphasizes this in his study; other views are also expressed by Becker (1991), Cleland et al. (1998), and Knight and Song (1999)."


Notes may be used for substantive additions to, or comments on, the text. They should be collected as endnotes in the manuscript and start a new page. Any citations of references in the notes should use the same form as text references: (Becker 1991).


Examples of the proper format are as follows:


Knowles, Stephen, and Arlene Garces-Ozanne. 2003. "Government Intervention and Economic Performance in East Asia." Economic Development and Cultural Change 51 (January): 451-77.


Yang, Dennis T. 1997. "China's Land Arrangements and Rural Labor Mobility." China Economic Review 8:101-15.


Becker, Gary S. 1991. A Treatise on the Family. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Essay in edited collection

Cleland, John, and Georgia Kaufmann. 1998. "Education, Fertility, and Child Survival: Unravelling the Links." In The Methods and Uses of Anthropological Demography, ed. Alaka Malwade Basu and Peter Aaby. Oxford: Clarendon.

Paper presented at a conference

Bai, Nansheng. 2001. "March Forward to the City or Return Back to the Country: A Study of the Returned Rural Laborers." Paper presented at the 2001 Labor Flow Conference, Beijing, July 4-6.

Working papers

Johnson, D. Gale. 1999. "Agricultural Adjustment in China: Problems and Prospects." Working paper, Department of Economics, University of Chicago.


Lerman, Zvi, and Csaba Csaki. 1997. "Land Reform in Ukraine: The First Five Years." World Bank Discussion Paper no. 371, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Unpublished manuscripts

Cheng, Leonard K., and H. Zhao. 1995. "Geographical Patterns of Foreign Direct Investments in China: Location, Factor Endowments, and Policy Incentives." Unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.


Narayan, Deepa. 2002. "Bonds and Bridges: Social Capital and Poverty." Photocopy, Poverty Group, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM), World Bank, Washington, DC.


Meng, Erika C. H. 1997. "Land Allocation Decisions and In Situ Conservation of Crop Genetic Resources: The Case of Wheat Landraces in Turkey." PhD diss., University of California, Davis.

Statistical data sources and Internet sources

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 1997. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana: Republic of Slovenia.


Statistics South Africa. "South African Population Census 1996."

U.S. Department of Agriculture. "Agricultural Statistics of Former USSR Republics and Baltic States, 1996.""international/93009/" (accessed May 16, 2001).



Each table should be on a separate page within the manuscript file, numbered consecutively, with a descriptive title and no vertical or horizontal lines, and cited in numerical order in the text. Each column must have a heading describing the data in the column below. Footnotes and accompanying explanatory material should be kept to a minimum. Please keep in mind that exceptionally large tables may be impossible to typeset or may have to be typeset in sections. Use the table editor in your word-processing program to create tables-do not embed tables from a spreadsheet or database program into a word-processing document without first converting them to the word processor's native format. Prepare tables in a consistent manner and as simply as possible; do not use tabs, spaces, or hard returns within table editors employing "cells" in an attempt to improve the tables' appearance. Instead, use your table editor's formatting tools. For further instructions on the preparation of tables, consult the Guidelines for Tables.

Figure Legends

Figure legends should also be double spaced and should appear on a separate page preceding the actual figures. Abbreviations or symbols used in a figure but not defined in the figure itself must be defined in the legend.


Each figure should appear on a separate page. Figures should be numbered in the order mentioned in the text. Please prepare figures in accordance with the Guidelines for Artwork. Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of sufficient size to be legible in the event figures must be reduced. It is possible you may be asked to revise figures as part of your manuscript revision. Figures reproduced from other publications must be accompanied by permission from the copyright holder. Hard copies of figures may be required for the purposes of publication.


Supporting Documents

Cover letter. The corresponding author should include a cover letter with the manuscript submission, noting his/her name, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. Revised submissions must also be accompanied by a cover letter addressing issues raised in the review process.


Related manuscripts. Authors must include a copy of any closely related manuscript submitted to, or published in, EDCC or elsewhere. If there appears to be significant overlap, the Editor may ask the author(s) to respond to the question of duplication. (For more information, see Duplicate Publication under Statement of Policy, above.)


Permissions. Obtain written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce unpublished or previously published articles, tables, or figures from other sources. For published articles, the copyright holder is usually the publisher, not the author. All permissions should be submitted with the manuscript.


Online Submission Instructions

Please have the following items readily available before beginning the online submission process:


  • Manuscript in an acceptable format as described above
  • Cover letter as a separate file
  • Information from title page (to be typed into the peer review database): title, short title, list of authors and affiliations, word count, and contact information for the corresponding author
  • Abstract of the manuscript (to be copied and pasted into a field in Editorial Manager)


Go to the EDCC Editorial Manager system at to submit your manuscript. Authors without Internet access should contact the editorial office for instructions. It is no longer necessary to submit a hard copy in addition to an electronic submission.

Open Access Policy

Economic Development and Cultural Change authors have the option to make their accepted paper freely available online immediately upon publication. The fee for Open Access is $2,500. Contact for more information.


UK authors should note that this option cannot be used to comply with RCUK regulations for gold OA, as the University of Chicago Press requires permission for commercial reuse. UCP does comply with the RCUK regulations for green OA.

"Green" Open Access

The University of Chicago Press supports Green Open Access for all articles, as defined by the RCUK Open Access Policy, under the Press’s Guidelines for Journal Authors’ Rights.