CA Style Guide

Please consult the Chicago Manual of Style for topics not discussed in this guide and for further information.

Click on the link below for a printable version of the Style Guide.

Current Anthropology Style Guide (PDF)






Treatment of Numbers and Math

General Style for Numbers

  • Spell out numbers under 10, except before a unit of measure.

5 years
three men and four women

  • Use numerals with all units of measure.
  35 years
180 km
  • Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence.
  Twenty-five years ago, …
  • Repeat full numbers in a range.
  • Use a comma in numbers with four or more digits.

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Ordinal Numbers

  • Spell out ordinal numbers in text.
  nineteenth century
seventy-fifth percentile



  • Spell out fractions in text.

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  • Use the percent symbol when it is preceded by a number.
  • 25%


Statistics, Decimals, and Zeros

  • Include a zero before the decimal with the following statistics (because values can equal 1):
  Correlation coefficients
    For bivariate analysis (r)
    For multivariate analysis (R)
  Correlations of determination
    For bivariate analysis (r2)
    For multivariate analysis (R2)
  Kappa statistic (κ)
Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az)
  • Do not use a zero before the decimal for the following statistics (because values cannot equal 1):
  Probability (e.g., P < .01)
α (level)
β (level)
  • Do not use a zero before the decimal in tables.
  • Refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.), chapter 14, for more information on mathematical expressions.

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  • Currencies should be clearly identified.
  • See the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.), 9.23–9.29, for more information.


Metric Measurements

  • Measurements must be expressed in the metric system. English system measurements may be included as well but are not required.
  • Metric abbreviations do not have a period after them; there should be a space between the numeral and the abbreviation.
  • Use metric abbreviations for measurements of distance, weight, area, volume, etc.
  177 km              345 km2              2 L              15°C
25 kg                 50 ha                  2,074 kcal

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Radiometric Dating

[We acknowledge the style guide of the Society for American Archaeology for this section.]

  • When reporting radiocarbon dates and ages, the following information should be included:
  • In the first citation, the uncalibrated radiocarbon age must be given. The uncalibrated radiocarbon age must be
  • Based on the 5,568-year 14C (radiocarbon ages based on the 5,730-year half-life must be divided by 1.03),
  • Expressed as years BP (i.e., Before Present; do not convert to radiocarbon years AD/BC),
  • Followed by the 1-sigma (σ) standard error, as provided by the laboratory,
  • Accompanied by the sample identification number given by the laboratory (use conventions for laboratory code abbreviations as provided in the journal Radiocarbon)
  • Accompanied by the type of material that was dated (e.g., wood charcoal, corn cob),
  • And defined as to whether the date was corrected for isotropic fractionation (a 13C value indicates correction has been made; best way to indicate this is to include  the 13C value if available).
  • An example of an uncalibrated radiocarbon age is 480 ± 70 BP (ISGS 5965; plant [Pragmites sp./Equisetum sp.]; δ13C, −25.1).
  • When calibrated dates are included, they must be identified as such by using the conventions "cal AD" or "cal BC," and the calibration used must be identified. Indicate whether the calibration was made for 1σ or 2σ (the latter is preferred), and present the calibrated age as a range of calendar age. If there is more than one possible range of age, include any probabilities provided by the calibration program. (For the date 3680 ± 60, the two possible calibrated age ranges are 2279–2232 cal BC [p = .05] and 2209–1905 cal BC [p = .95].)
  • An example of a calibrated radiocarbon age is ca. cal AD 1480–1532 (calibrated with CALIB 5.0 at 2σ).
  • If the manuscript includes many calibrated dates, consider presenting them in a table.
  • Radiocarbon ages with four digits do not include a comma, but ages with five digits do include a comma.
  • The atomic weight of an isotope should be presented as a superscript number preceding the element symbol.

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General Style for Quoted Text

  • Consult the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.), chapter 11, for situations not included here.
  • Quotations within the line of text use double quotation marks. No quotation marks are used for block (set-off) quotations, for epigraphs, or for text from interviews.
  • Ellipsis dots are used only to indicate omission of text within a quotation and not at the beginning or the end of a quotation.
  • Capitalize the first word of the quotation as it fits within the syntax of the sentence or paragraph, and punctuate accordingly. Do not indicate a change of capitalization with brackets.
  • Direct quotations from other works require attribution, including the source and the page number. This is almost always most appropriate within the text and not in a footnote.
  • Quoted material of fewer than five typed lines in the manuscript should be included within the paragraph, enclosed within double quotation marks.
  • Punctuate and capitalize in-text quotations according to the syntax of the surrounding text.


  • An epigraph is a quotation that appears at the beginning of an article or a section of the article.
  • An epigraph is not enclosed in quotation marks. Epigraphs appear in italic type in the journal, but they should be presented in the manuscript in roman type, with italics used as needed for foreign terms, etc.
  • Attribution for an epigraph appears within parentheses, immediately following the quotation.

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Citation of References in Text

General Principles for Citations

  • Every reference listed in the References Cited must be cited in the text by author's last name (or whatever name appears as "author" in the reference) and year.
  • Do not use "ibid." or similar designations.
  • References are cited by author's last name and year. Both the name and the year are within parentheses unless the name is part of the text, in which case the year is within parentheses.

Author and Year

  • The year appears immediately following the author's name, in parentheses, though the author's name may appear in the run of text.

Hill (2001) has studied . . .

  • When both the name and the year appear together, no punctuation comes between them.
  In a recent study (Hill 2001) that chronicles . . .
  • For works listed in the References Cited but not yet published, and for which no year appears in the reference, use "forthcoming" instead of a year, with a comma after the author.
  . . . (Jones, forthcoming) . . .
Jones (forthcoming) . . .


  • Cite as "author" the same name that is in the References Cited even if this is not a person. Omit "ed.," "trans." or "comp." from the text citation.  Avoid using "Anonymous."
  (United Nations 1948)

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Multiple Authors for One Reference

  • Use all author names for references with one, two, or three authors; use the first author's name plus "et al." for references with four or more authors.
  • For two authors, use "and," not an ampersand symbol.


(Washington and Fillmore 1995)
  • For three authors, use serial comma style.
  (Miller, Martin, and Ritter 2005)
  • For four or more authors, use "et al."
  (Montgomery et al. 1980)

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String of Citations

  • Several citations appearing together have semicolons between citations for different authors. Several citations for one author have commas between the years.
  (Cummings 2005, 2007:520, 2008; Morton 2000; Perkins, Morris, and Taylor 2000)
  • Citations appearing together are listed alphabetically by author. Several citations for the same author are listed chronologically, with "et al." citations for the same author coming last.
  (Ashmore 1986; Coe 1965; de Montmollin 1988; Fox 1987, 1991; Freidel 1986; Freidel, Ashmore, and Fox 1990; Freidel and Schele 1986; Freidel et al. 1990)


Page Number with Citation

  • When a page number appears in the citation, use a colon after the year, closed up to the page number.
  (Roosevelt 1940:15)

Figure, Table, or Note

  • If the element can be located without a page number, the page number is omitted.
  (Hamann 2008, fig. 5)
. . . radiocarbon dates presented by Ladefoged and Graves (2008, table 1) . . . (Hamann 2008, n. 38)

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Quotation with Citation

  • Direct quotations require citation by page number, usually appearing at the end of the quotation.
  • Quotation within the line of text

As Primo Levi (1989) asserts, "My tattoo has become a part of my body. I don't glory in it . . . but I don't erase it since there are not many to bear witness" (118).

These communities' ambivalent relationships with their neighbors gave rise, possibly frequently, to violent confrontations in which all the community's men of fighting age participated: "In these worlds of farmers who were warriors and warriors who were farmers, the social institution of 'the warrior' was part of being an adult man and active member of the corporate community" (Hill 2006:178).

  •  Block quote
  As Gell explained: This theory supposes that wayfinding is carried out in the light of stored spatial information in the form of a "mental map" of the terrain, plus, presumably, some inferential schemes of this information into suitable practical decisions and actions. (Gell 1985:272)


Unpublished Work

  • Forthcoming works (works that have been accepted for publication and are in the publication process) are listed in the References Cited and are cited as references, with "forthcoming."
  • Manuscripts that are not in the formal publication process (e.g., that have been submitted but not yet accepted for publication) and other unpublished work are cited parenthetically in the text or explained in a footnote.
  • Unpublished work should be identified as a manuscript, a letter, an e-mail, a personal conversation, or "unpublished data." The citation must include the full name of the person and a date or a year, if possible, as well as the brief description.
  (George Hamilton, personal conversation, May 2009)
(William Lewis, Donald Steadman, and Peter Larsen, unpublished data)
(Mary Pat Stearns, unpublished manuscript, 2008)
(Dan Peterson, e-mail, January 13, 2008)

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References Cited List

General Principles for References

  • For more information, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, chapters 16 and 17 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago).
  • Every reference in the References Cited list must be cited in the text.
  • Only published works or manuscripts that have been accepted for publication and are in the publication process are included in the References Cited (as "forthcoming").
  • Unpublished manuscripts, including those submitted for publication, are listed in the text parenthetically (see "Citation of References in Text" guidelines) or are explained in a footnote.
  • Unpublished sources such as archival materials and correspondence are cited in footnotes in the text.
  • Electronically published sources such as journals are treated the same as any published work.
  • An electronic source without a publisher, an institutional sponsor, or an author is cited in the text or in a footnote.

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Order of References

  • The References Cited list is alphabetized by the first author's surname, with names with particles alphabetized strictly by letter ("Mc" is alphabetized as m and c, not as if it were "Mac").
  • A 3-em dash is used to replace only an identical list of names immediately above it in the list.
Same First Author
  • Two or more references with the same first author are alphabetized by the author's first name or initials; names with only initials come first.
  Anderson, B.
Anderson, B. J.
Anderson, Bruce.
Faire, Claire.
LeFevre, Meredith.
Lewis, Susan.
Manchester, Clarence.
McDonald, Old.
van Dorn, William.
  • Multiple authors are alphabetized by the first author's surname and first name; in the rest of the group, the order is by surnames only.
  Smith, Isaiah, and Holden Caulfield.
Smith, James, Margaret Allen, and Philip Stephens.
Smith, James, George Brown, and Catherine Bolen.
Smith, James G., Margaret Allen, and George Brown.
  • Two or more references by the same author or group of authors are listed by year after alphabetization of the authors' names.
  • Two references by the same author with the same year are alphabetized by article title (disregarding an initial "A," "An," or "The") and designated a, b, etc.
  Arnold, Kate, and Klaus Zuberbühler. 2006a. The alarm-calling system of adult male putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans martini. Animal Behaviour 72(3):643–653.

———. 2006b. Semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature 41:303.   

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Identical Authors for Subsequent References
  • For two or more references by the same author (or identical group of authors), the names appear only the first time and then are replaced by a 3-em dash. The dash replaces the names only; "ed.," "trans.," etc., appear where appropriate.
  Albert, Henry T.
Comaroff, Jean, and John Comaroff.
Comaroff, John, and Jean Comaroff.
Marty, Martin E., and R. Scott Appleby.
———, eds.  [both Marty and Appleby are editors of the second work]

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Content of References

  • Please use full names for authors.
  • The first author's name is reversed. Use "and" between two authors' names and "and" and a serial comma for more than two.
  Leakey, Louis S. B., Philip V. Tobias, and John R. Napier.
Maynard Smith, John, and Robert J. G. Savage.
  • Include all authors for references with 10 or fewer authors. When there are 11 or more authors, include only the first 7 names plus "et al." In the text, cite this reference with the first author's surname plus "et al."
  • If the "author" is not a person but an organization or other entity (such as a Working Group), list that name as author, and if the organization is also the publisher, repeat the name. Cite the reference in the text with the same name as is listed in the reference list (though an acronym or abbreviation may be used in the citation if it is defined in the reference). Avoid using "Anonymous" as author.
  • If the organization to serve as "author" is also the publisher, the name appears in both places. For example, if the newspaper's name needs to appear as author, it also appears in the usual position in the reference.
  • To indicate an editor or translator, add a comma and "ed." or "trans." after the name.
  Hutchinson, Patricia, ed.
  • Capitalize particles with names according to the preference of that author or to historical use. In the text, if a lowercased name begins a sentence, capitalize the first letter.
  de la Vega, Garcilaso.
Tocqueville, Alexis de
Van Camp, Mark.


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  • The year of publication follows the author's name.
  • Reprinted or revised books may have an older and a newer date. The newer date appears first, with the older date in parentheses. Both years are included in the citation in the text, with brackets replacing the parentheses when appropriate.
  • When the work is in the process of being published and the year of publication is known, include the year in the usual position, and at the end of the reference add "Forthcoming."
  • When the year is not yet known, "Forthcoming" appears in the year's position.


  • Capitalize all titles "sentence style" (capitalize the first word and proper nouns).
  • Italicize journal titles, book titles, monograph titles (but not series titles), report titles, journal special issue titles, newspaper names, and software program titles (when in a reference).
  • An initial "The" is omitted from journal titles. Do not abbreviate journal titles.
  • Article and chapter titles are roman, not enclosed in quotation marks.
  • Do not attempt to replicate the typography of a title as it appears in the original publication; e.g., use "and" instead of an ampersand (&).
  • Lowercase the first word of a subtitle (following a colon), even if it is a question.
  • If an English translation of a title in a language other than English is provided, the translated title appears in brackets following the original title. The translation is not italicized.
  Smolianinov, V. M., K. I. Tatiev, and V. F. Cherviakov. 1961. Sudebnaia meditsina [Legal medicine]. Moscow: Medgiz.
  • If the work is in a language other than English but the reference is presented in English, specify the original language in brackets.
  Imanishi, K. 1952. Evolution of humanity. In Man. K. Imanishi, ed. Pp. 36–94. Tokyo: Mainichi-Shinbunsha. [In Japanese.]


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  • Include the city where the publisher is located; when several cities are listed, use only the first one.
  • Publisher names that include the state do not repeat the state with the city.
  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press
  • Include the state or province for U.S., Australian, and Canadian cities. Abbreviate U.S. states according to the Chicago Manual of Style (two-letter abbreviations); spell out provinces.
  • These U.S. cities will appear without states:
Atlanta Detroit New Orleans
Baltimore    Houston New York
Boston Honolulu Philadelphia
Chicago Indianapolis San Francisco
Denver Los Angeles Seattle
  •  These international cities will appear without countries:
Auckland Cape Town Oxford
Bangkok Cologne Paris
Barcelona London Singapore
Beijing Melbourne Sydney
Berlin Mumbai Tokyo
Buenos Aires New Delhi Toronto
Cambridge Ottawa  
  • Journal article references do not include publishers, but almost every other kind of reference needs a publisher's name (books, meeting proceedings, bulletins and pamphlets, software).
  • Use the imprint name when it is appropriate rather than the larger publisher's name, such as "Clarendon" when appropriate rather than "Oxford University Press."When "and" is part of the publisher's name, use an ampersand.
  Allen & Unwin
Harper & Row
  • Use shortened publisher names, with no first name unless it is necessary to distinguish from another publisher, and omitting terms such as "Publishers," "Ltd.," and "Co." Omit "Press" usually, except for university presses and those listed here. (Omit foreign terms for these too, such as "Verlag.") If you are not sure whether to shorten a name that is not listed here, please provide the full name.
Abingdon Free Press Pergamon
Academic Press Harper & Row Russell
Basic Little, Brown W. H. Freeman
Clarendon Macmillan  


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 Page Numbers
  • Provide inclusive numbers (with all the digits) for journal articles and book chapters.
  • Specific page numbers for locations of quotations that appear in the text are included with the citation in the text, not in the reference.
  • Book volume numbers are arabic, not roman, numerals.
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)
  • URLs should be provided for material that is available only online.
  • The URL also should be provided if the electronic source is the source used in the writing of the manuscript.
  • The author is responsible for verifying that a URL is still "live" and accurate. The URL should link to a permanent presence on the Web, such as an institution's official site.
  • Avoid breaking a URL at the end of a line. If a break is necessary, follow the Chicago Manual of Style's rules for breaking URLs (i.e., never add a hyphen; break after slashes and before periods).

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Examples of References


Book, Single Author
  Cressy, David. 1997. Birth, marriage, and death: ritual, religion, and the life-cycle in Tudor and Stuart England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Book, More Than One Author
  MacClancy, Jeremy, C. Jeya Henry, and Helen Macbeth. 2007. Consuming the inedible: neglected dimensions of food choice. New York: Berghahn.

Wilkinson, Tony J., and D. J. Tucker. 1995. Settlement development in the North Jazira, Iraq. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.
Book, Editor as Author
  Butzer, Karl W., and Glynn L. Isaac, eds. 1975. After the australopithecines: stratigraphy, ecology, and culture change in the middle Pleistocene. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Book Chapter
  • Include the chapter's author(s) and inclusive page numbers.
  • Give the same information for the book that you would provide for a reference to the book alone.
  • Repeat all book information for subsequent references to other chapters from the same book.
  Leacock, Eleanor. 1980. Montagnais women and the Jesuit program for colonization. In Women and colonization: anthropological perspectives. Mona Etienne and Eleanor Leacock, eds. Pp. 25–42. New York: Praeger.


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Book Introduction, Foreword, Etc.

Bar-Yosef, O., and F. Valla. 1991. The Natufian culture: an introduction. In The Natufian culture in the Levant. O. Bar-Yosef and F. Valla, eds. Pp. 1–10. Ann Arbor, MI: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Cornwall, I. W. 1981. Appendix A: the Pre-Pottery Neolithic burials. In Excavations at Jericho, vol. 3 of The architecture and stratigraphy of the Tell. K. M. Kenyon and T. A. Holland, eds. Pp. 395–406. London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.>

 Multivolume Book

Resnick, Donald, and Gen Niwayama. 1995. Gouty arthritis. In Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, vol. 3. 3rd edition. Donald Resnick, ed. Pp. 1511–1555. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Sahlins, Marshall D. 1992. Anahulu: the anthropology of history in the kingdom of Hawaii, vol. 1 of Historical ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 Monograph Series
  Gray, Andrew. 1995. The indigenous movement in Asia. In Indigenous peoples of Asia. R. H. Barnes, Andrew Gray, and Benedict Kingsbury, eds. Pp. 35–58. Monograph and Occasional Paper Series, no. 48. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies.

Wobst, Martin. 1977. Stylistic behavior and information exchange. In For the director: research essays in honor of James B. Griffin. C. E. Cleland, ed. Pp. 317–342. Anthropology Papers 61. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology.

 Reprinted Book, Revised Edition, or Subsequent Edition
  • Spell out "edition" to distinguish it from "ed." for "editor."

de la Vega, Garcilaso. 1966 (1609). Royal commentaries of the Incas, and general history of Peru, 2 vols. Harold V. Livermore, trans. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Foucault, Michel. 1970 (1966). The order of things. Alan Sheridan, trans. London: Tavistock.

Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1965. Government and society. In Ancient Hawaiian civilization: a series of lectures delivered at the Kamehameha schools. Rev. edition. E. S. C. Handy, K. P. Emory, E. H. Bryan, P. H. Buck, and J. Wise, eds. Pp. 35–46. Rutland, VT: Tuttle.

  • Reprinted books and revised editions often include the newer date and the original one. The older date appears second, within parentheses. Both years are included in the citation in the text.
  • Subsequent editions usually list only the date of this edition.

Garner, Bryan A. 2001. Black's law dictionary. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MN: West Group.


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 Book Translation
  • Translated book

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a theory of practice. R. Nice, trans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Translated book with author and date of original book

Campion-Vincent, Véronique. 2005 (1997). Organ theft legends. Jacqueline Simpson, trans. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.

  •  Foreign-language book but translated reference
  Li, X., G. Liu, G. Xu, F. Wang, S. Qiu, and L. Cai. 1985. Radiocarbon dating of fossil mammal bones from the Upper Cave and New Cave of Zhoukoudian. In Multidisciplinary study of the Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian. IVPP, ed. Pp. 261–262. Beijing: Science. [In Chinese.]
 Forthcoming Book or Chapter
  • Italicize forthcoming book titles.
  • Date not yet known
  Umberger, Emily. Forthcoming. Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli: political dimensions of Aztec deities. In Tezcatlipoca: trickster and supreme Aztec deity. Elizabeth Baquedano, ed. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.
  • Date known
  James, Hannah V. A., and M. D. Petraglia. 2009. The Lower to Middle Palaeolithic transition in South Asia and its implications for hominin cognition and dispersals. In Sourcebook of Paleolithic transitions. Marta Camps and Parth R. Chauhan, eds. Rotterdam: Springer. Forthcoming.

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 Journal Article
  •  Include issue numbers, if you have them, as well as the volume and page numbers. (Issue numbers are needed for journals whose issues each begin with page 1.)

Bottinelli, Roberto. 2001. Functional heterogeneity of mammalian single muscle fibres: do myosin isoforms tell the whole story? Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 443(1):6–17.

Hill, Ann Maxwell. 2008. Provocative behavior: agency and feuds in southwest China. American Anthropologist 106(4):675–686.
  • Article with "part" number
  Wrangham, Richard, Nancy Conklin-Brittain, and Kevin Hunt. 1998. Dietary responses of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. 1. Antifeedants. International Journal of Primatology 19(6):949–970.
 Journal Supplement Article
  • Current Anthropology designates its own supplement articles in References Cited as follows:
  Lock, Margaret. 2005. Eclipse of the gene and the return of divination. Current Anthropology 46(suppl.):S47–S70.
  • Articles from supplements are identified in different ways by different journals. Provide as much information as you can.


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 Journal Special Issue
  • Special issues sometimes have editors listed and sometimes have issue titles.
  • Entire issue cited
  Eades, D., and J. Arends, eds. 2004. Language analysis and the determination of nationality. Thematic issue, International Journal of Speech, Language, and the Law 11(2).
  • Article from a special issue with an issue editor
  Phillips-Conroy, J. E., and C. J. Jolly. 2004. Male dispersal and philopatry in the Awash Baboon Hybrid Zone. In Primate dispersal: proximate and ultimate causes and consequences, pt. 2.C. B. Jones, ed. Special issue, Primate Report 68:27–52.
  • Article from a special issue with no issue editor
  Hay, Margaret Jean. 1988. Queens, prostitutes and peasants: historical perspectives on African women, 1971–1986. In Current research on African women. Special issue, Canadian Journal of African Studies 22:431–447.
Electronic-Only Journal or Newsletter
  • E-only journals usually have no page numbers. Issue numbers are needed in references to these journals.
  • A URL should be provided for e-only publications.

Cunha, Eugenia. 1999. Commentary by Eugenia Cunha. Mediterranean Prehistory Online.

Malezer, Les. 2007. Global Indigenous Caucus. Kasama 21(3).

Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
  Out, W. A. 2008. Growing habits? delayed introduction of crop cultivation at marginal Neolithic wetland sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17(suppl.):S131–S138, doi:10.1007/s00334-008-0152-z.
Journal New Series
  Lewis-Williams, David. 1980. Ethnography and iconography: aspects of southern San thought and art. Man, n.s., 15(3):457–482.
Forthcoming Journal Article
  • Year known (but do not include a volume number)
  Weiss, Kenneth M., and Anne V. Buchanan. 2009. The cooperative genome: organisms as social contracts. International Journal of Developmental Biology. Forthcoming.
  • Year not yet known
  Billman, B. R., P. M. Lambert, and B. L. Leonard. Forthcoming. Cannibalism, warfare, and drought in the Mesa Verde region during the twelfth century A.D. American Antiquity.

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Other Sources

Dissertation or Thesis
  • Specify the degree.
  • List the university and its location, not a publisher.
  • U.S. universities generally use "thesis" for a master's work and "dissertation" for doctoral.
  Patten, Samuel Merrick, Jr. 1974. Breeding ecology of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in Glacier Bay, Alaska. MS thesis, University of Washington, Seattle.

Willey, P. 1982. Osteology of the Crow Creek massacre. PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
  •  Foreign theses, etc., use their terminology for the degree and the work.
  Escott, Boyd. 2000. A mineralogical and chemical study of San rock paintings and discarded ochre in the Maqonqo Shelter, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BSc Honours dissertation, University of Natal.

Kempson, H. 2007. Late earlier Stone Age sites in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa: a technological study. MSc dissertation, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Government Record or Reports
  United Nations. 1992. The International Year for the World's Indigenous People: who are the world's indigenous peoples? New York: UN Department of Public Information.

U.S. Congress. 1993. International Year of the World's Indigenous Peoples. U.S. Senate concurrent resolution, 103rd Cong., 1st sess. Congressional Record, November 19, p. S16595.

White House. 2002. The national security strategy. September.


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Internet Document
  • When a URL ends a reference, a period is added.
  • With date accessed
  Instituto Nacional de Estadística-Apure, Censo Comunidades Indigenas. 2001. Poblacion inidígena empadronada por grupo segun sexo y pueblo indigena de pertenencia el Estado Apure. (accessed January 16, 2005).
  • Without date accessed

Canadian Government. 2006. Canada's position: UN draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Skotnes, Pippa, ed. 2005. Lloyd and Bleek online. LLAREC, University of Cape Town.

Legal Case
  • Cite legal cases in the text or in footnotes.
  • Popular magazine articles are cited by date only, even if the magazine has a volume and issue number.
  • Inclusive page numbers are not included for magazine articles. (A specific page number for citing a quotation is provided with the citation in the text.)
  Criscoll, Carlos A., Juliet Clutton-Brock, Andrew C. Kitchener, and Stephen J. O'Brien. 2009. The evolution of house cats. Scientific American, June.
  • A newspaper name in a reference preferably is followed by the city where it is located, in parentheses. Drop an initial "The" in a newspaper's name.
  • For a newspaper article, a section (sec.) designation is provided rather than a page number.

Edwards, Steven. 2007. Tories defend "no" in native rights vote. Gazette (Montreal), September 14, news sec.

Hoge, Warren. 2007. Indigenous rights declaration approved. New York Times, September 14, world sec.

  • If the article has no author's byline, use the news service if it is provided or repeat the newspaper's name as "author," if necessary.
  Associated Press. 2007. Russia strikes Caspian pipeline deal. New York Times, May 12.


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 Paper Presented at a Meeting
  Include the meeting's location and dates if possible.
  Straight, Bilinda. 2005. Divine sex games: transgressive fecundity and the playful boundaries of personhood in Samburu. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Christina Conference on Gender, Religion, and Theory in Dialogue, Helsinki, March 3–5.

Whittaker, Stanley. 1994. Men, women, and lamentation. Paper presented to the McNair Symposium, Berkeley.

  Bellwood, P. 2001. Polynesian prehistory and the rest of mankind. In Pacific 2000: proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific. Christopher M. Stevenson, Georgia Less, and F. J. Morin, eds. Pp. 11–25. Los Osos, CA: Bearsville.

Komar, D. 2001. Differential decay rates in single, multiple, and mass graves in Bosnia. Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Annual Meeting 7:242–243.

  Emory University Sustainability Committee. 2006. Sustainability vision for Emory.

HDR (Human Development Report). 2007. Human development report 2007/2008. Human Development Report Office. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

Proulx, D. A. 1968. An archaeological survey of the Nepeña Valley, Peru. Research report. Amherst: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts.

  Brace, C. Loring. 1996. Racialism and racist agendas: review of Race, evolution, and behavior: a life history perspective, by J. Philippe Rushton. American Anthropologist 98:176–177.
  • List in the References Cited published software that is not available free on the Internet as shareware or freeware.
  Schneider, S., D. Rooessli, and L. Excofier. 2000. Arlequin, ver. 2.000: a software package for population genetics data analysis. Geneva: University of Geneva Genetic and Biochemistry Laboratory.

SPSS. 2007. SPSS graduate pack 16.0 for Windows. Chicago: SPSS.

Software User Guide
  SAS Institute. 1999. SAS/STAT user's guide. Version 8. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.


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Footnotes in Text


Footnotes are closely integrated with and add interest to the text. They aid in ease of reference and help when immediate knowledge of a source is necessary for the readers. However, footnotes do not replace references in the References Cited.

Footnotes are numbered with superscript Arabic numerals, in numerical order.

Callout numbers for footnotes are generally placed at the end of a sentence (after the punctuation). Placement after punctuation within the sentence also is acceptable.

Try to avoid having more than one footnote in a sentence; consider whether notes can be combined into one note at the end of the sentence.

In the preparation of your manuscript, place all footnotes at the end of the document.


Examples of footnote content include the following:

  • Web sites and online databases
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