KATE L. TURABIAN

A Manual for Writers

of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

Eighth Edition Table of Contents

A Note to Students
Preface
Acknowledgements
Part I Research and Writing: From Planning to Production
1 What Research Is and How Researchers Think about It
1.1 How Researchers Think about Their Aims
1.2 Three Kinds of Questions That Researchers Ask
2 Moving from a Topic to a Question to a Working Hypothesis
2.1 Find a Question in Your Topic
2.2 Propose Some Working Answers
2.3 Build a Storyboard to Plan and Guide Your Work
2.4 Organize a Writing Support Group
3 Finding Useful Sources
3.1 Understand the Kinds of Sources Readers Expect You to Use
3.2 Record Your Sources Fully, Accurately, and Appropriately
3.3 Search for Sources Systematically
3.4 Evaluate Sources for Relevance and Reliability
3.5 Look beyond the Usual Kinds of References
4 Engaging Sources
4.1 Read Generously to Understand, Then Critically to Engage and Evaluate
4.2 Take Notes Systematically
4.3 Take Useful Notes
4.4 Write as You Read
4.5 Review Your Progress
4.6 Manage Moments of Normal Panic
5 Planning Your Argument
5.1 What a Research Argument Is and Is Not
5.2 Build Your Argument around Answers to Readers’ Questions
5.3 Turn Your Working Hypothesis into a Claim
5.4 Assemble the Elements of Your Argument
5.5 Distinguish Arguments Based on Evidence from Arguments Based on Warrants
5.6 Assemble an Argument
6 Planning a First Draft
6.1 Avoid Unhelpful Plans
6.2 Create a Plan That Meets Your Readers’ Needs
6.3 File Away Leftovers
7 Drafting Your Report
7.1 Draft in the Way That Feels Most Comfortable
7.2 Develop Productive Drafting Habits
7.3 Use Your Key Terms to Keep Yourself on Track
7.4 Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize Appropriately
7.5 Integrate Quotations into Your Text
7.6 Use Footnotes and Endnotes Judiciously
7.7 Interpret Complex or Detailed Evidence Before You Offer It
7.8 Be Open to Surprises
7.9 Guard against Inadvertent Plagiarism
7.10 Guard against Inappropriate Assistance
7.11 Work through Chronic Procrastination and Writer’s Block
8 Presenting Evidence in Tables and Figures
8.1 Choose Verbal or Visual Representations
8.2 Choose the Most Effective Graphic
8.3 Design Tables and Figures
8.4 Communicate Data Ethically
9 Revising Your Draft
9.1 Check for Blind Spots in Your Argument
9.2 Check Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Claim
9.3 Make Sure the Body of Your Report Is Coherent
9.4 Check Your Paragraphs
9.5 Let Your Draft Cool, Then Paraphrase It
10 Writing Your Final Introduction and Conclusion
10.1 Draft Your Final Introduction
10.2 Draft Your Final Conclusion
10.3 Write Your Title Last
11 Revising Sentences
11.1 Focus on the First Seven or Eight Words of a Sentence
11.2 Diagnose What You Read
11.3 Choose the Right Word
11.4 Polish It Up
11.5 Give It Up and Print It Out
12 Learning from Your Returned Paper
12.1 Find General Principles in Specific Comments
12.2 Talk to Your Instructor
13 Presenting Research in Alternative Forums
13.1 Plan Your Oral Presentation
13.2 Design Your Presentation to Be Listened To
13.3 Plan Your Poster Presentation
13.4 Plan Your Conference Proposal
14 On the Spirit of Research
Part II Source Citation
15 General Introduction to Citation Practices
15.1 Reasons for Citing Your Sources
15.2 The Requirements of Citation
15.3 Two Citation Styles
15.4 Electronic Sources
15.5 Preparation of Citations
15.6 Citation Management Software
16 Notes–Bibliography Style: The Basic Form
16.1 Basic Patterns
16.2 Bibliographies
16.3 Notes
16.4 Short Forms for Notes
17 Notes–Bibliography Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
17.1 Books
17.2 Journal Articles
17.3 Magazine Articles
17.4 Newspaper Articles
17.5 Additional Types of Published Sources
17.6 Unpublished Sources
17.7 Websites, Blogs, Social Networks, and Discussion Groups
17.8 Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
17.9 Public Documents
17.10 One Source Quoted in Another
18 Author-Date Style: The Basic Form
18.1 Basic Patterns
18.2 Reference Lists
18.3 Parenthetical Citations
19 Author-Date Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
19.1 Books
19.2 Journal Articles
19.3 Magazine Articles
19.4 Newspaper Articles
19.5 Additional Types of Published Sources
19.6 Unpublished Sources
19.7 Websites, Blogs, Social Networks, and Discussion Groups
19.8 Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
19.9 Public Documents
19.10 One Source Quoted in Another
Part III Style
20 Spelling
20.1 Plurals
20.2 Possessives
20.3 Compounds and Words Formed with Prefixes
20.4 Line Breaks
21 Punctuation
21.1 Periods
21.2 Commas
21.3 Semicolons
21.4 Colons
21.5 Question Marks
21.6 Exclamation Points
21.7 Hyphen and Dashes
21.8 Parentheses and Brackets
21.9 Slashes
21.10 Quotation Marks
21.11 Apostrophes
21.12 Multiple Punctuation Marks
22 Names, Special Terms, and Titles of Works
22.1 Names
22.2 Special Terms
22.3 Titles of Works
23 Numbers
23.1 Words or Numerals?
23.2 Plurals and Punctuation
23.3 Date Systems
23.4 Numbers Used outside the Text
24 Abbreviations
24.1 General Principles
24.2 Names and Titles
24.3 Geographical Terms
24.4 Time and Dates
24.5 Units of Measure
24.6 The Bible and Other Sacred Works
24.7 Abbreviations in Citations and Other Scholarly Contexts
25 Quotations
25.1 Quoting Accurately and Avoiding Plagiarism
25.2 Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
25.3 Modifying Quotations
26 Tables and Figures
26.1 General Issues
26.2 Tables
26.3 Figures
Appendix: Paper Format and Submission
A.1 General Format Requirements
A.2 Format Requirements for Specific Elements
A.3 Submission Requirements

Bibliography
Authors
Index

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