Sources for Chapter 9
The books, Web sites, journal articles, and interviews listed on this page are sources of information other than facts and concepts found in most beginning college-level meteorology textbooks, which the author used or that could help readers better understand the concepts described. For more on various topics, including further reading and links to related Web sites, follow the links labeled “Explorations.” Links labeled “Outtakes” are to text from early drafts of the book that were dropped before publication.
In the notes below “the author” refers to Jack Williams, author of The AMS Weather Book.
- The day after Labor Day 2006 scene: The author was present in Boise, Idaho, at the meeting described and afterwards interviewed Chuck Warmack; this interview was followed by e-mail exchanges. See also the National Interagency Fire Center home page.
- For sources and more information on the profile of Coleen Decker, text describing fire weather, and the graphics on pages 210 and 211 see Explorations: Fire Weather.
- Winds with names graphic: Weather World 2010 Project’s Sea Breezes and Land Breeze Develops Web pages.
- Sea breezes converge: The Weather Doctor Web site’s Lake Breeze Weather page.
- Santa Ana winds: Keith C. Heidorn has a good discussion of the meteorology, source of the name, and more on his Weather Doctor Web site article on the winds. He even discusses references to the winds in literature and music.
- Wildfire killed five firefighters: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection’s full accident report Web page.
- Chinook winds cause extreme temperature changes: Andrew H. Horvitz, et al., “A National Temperature Record at Loma, Montana (PDF file),” NOAA National Climatic Data Center Web site.
- Antarctica’s katabatic winds: Kristan Hutchinson, “Antarctic Winds Have Global Effects,” from The Antarctic Sun (published online by USATODAY.com); Thomas R. Parish and John J. Cassano, “The Role of Katabatic Winds on the Antarctic Surface Wind Regime,” Monthly Weather Review131 (February 2003): 317–333.
- Tropical cyclones as mesoscale, convective systems: Jack Bevin, a hurricane specialist at the National Hurricane Center, looks at this question on his personal Web site, where he uses a satellite photo from July 18, 2002, which shows images of four systems that look much alike. One is a hurricane; the other three are also mesoscale systems.
- Derechos: NWS Storm Prediction Center’s (SPC) About Derechos Web page; the SPC’s Derecho and Bow Echo Publication Web page is an extensive bibliography on both topics. The graphic is based on the SPC’s July 4, 1977 Derecho Web page.
- Bow echoes: Theodore Fujita first used the term bow echo in his “Manual of Downburst Identification for Project NIMROD,” in Satellite and Mesometeorology (research paper, no. 156, University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, 1978), 104.
- Hawaiian bow echo: Steven Businger, et al., “A Bow Echo and Severe Weather Associated with a Kona Low in Hawaii,” Weather and Forecasting 13 (September 1998): 576–591.
- Bow echoes graphic: NWS Salt Lake City Forecast Office’s Wasatch Bow Echo Event—1 August 2006 Web page; the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research’s COMET Web module, Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes; and the Science Overview of the Bow Echo and MCV Experiment (BAMEX) Main Frame (submitted to the National Science Foundation on December 14, 2001).
Pages 218 and 220–223
- Mesoscale Convective Complexes: Based on the author’s telephone conversations and e-mail exchanges with Bob Maddox. A detailed sketch by Maddox was the basis of the graphic on page 221. Also Robert A. Maddox, “Mesoscale Convective Complexes,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) 61 (November 1980): 1374–1387; Robert A. Maddox, “Large-Scale Meteorological Conditions Associated with Midlatitude, Mesoscale Convective Complexes,” Monthly Weather Review 111 (July 1983): 1475–1493.
- Winter warm front graphic: The surface pattern shown on the weather map is from the NWS Daily Weather Map for December 15, 2005. Upper air data is from the University of Wyoming Department of Atmospheric Sciences’ upper air soundings for December 15, 2005, at the locations shown.
- Lake effect snow graphic: The NWS Buffalo, New York, Forecast Office’s Just What Is Lake-Effect Snow? Web page, one of several pages linked from the NWS Buffalo Lake Effect page; the Weather Doctor Web site’s Lake Effect Snowfalls Web pages.
- Atmospheric rivers: Based on the author’s telephone conversations and e-mail exchanges with Dave Jorgensen, of the NOAA, and the NOAA Hydrometeorological Testbed: HMT-West 2007 Operations Web page.
- NOAA Lake-effect snow satellite image obtained with the help of John Leslie of NOAA public affairs.